download ebook 1491 pdf epub

Charles C. Mann

Up until very recently it was believed that in 1491, the year before Columbus landed, the Americas, one-third of the earth's surface, were a near-pristine wilderness inhabited by small roaming bands of indigenous people. But recently unexpected discoveries have dramatically changed our understanding of Indian life. Many scholars now argue that the Indians were much more numerous, were in the Americas for far longer and had far more ecological impact on the land than previously believed. This knowledge has enormous implications for today's environmental disputes, yet little has filtered into textbooks and even less into public awareness. Mann brings together all of the latest research, and the results of his own travels throughout North and South America, to provide a new, fascinating and iconoclastic account of the Americas before Columbus.

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Charles C. Mann

1491 verandert voorgoed ons beeld van de geschiedenis van de amerika's In 1491 woonden er misschien wel meer mensen in Amerika dan in Europa. Grote steden als Tenochtitlán hadden stromend water en bezaten prachtige botanische tuinen. In Mexico verbouwden precolum biaanse Indianen maïs volgens zeer geavanceerde teelttechnieken. De Inca's hadden het grootste rijk in de toenmalige wereld opgebouwd, groter dan de Ming-dynastie of het Ottomaanse Rijk. Totdat de Europeanen met hun geweld en ziektes hier een einde aan maakten. 1491 maakt voor eens en voor altijd duidelijk dat de geschiedenis van Amerika zeker niet begint met Columbus, die in 1492 op een van de Bahama's voet aan wal zette Charles C. Mann schreef een heldere en levendige synthese van wat door historici, geografen en archeologen de afgelopen dertig jaar is ontdekt over de prestaties en het lot van de oorspronkelijke inwoners van Amerika. Mann ontkracht op overtuigende wijze talloze mythen en neemt de lezer mee naar de intrigerende, hoogontwikkelde wereld van onder meer de Inca's, Azteken en Maya's. 'Mann maakt korte metten met het inheemse Amerika van de schoolboekjes: passief, primitief en in de confrontatie met Europa gedoemd te verdwijnen.' NRC Handelsblad 'Mann heeft een mooi en aanstekelijk boek geschreven.' Trouw '[...] een zeer nauwgezette, weloverwogen zoektocht naar het antwoord op de vraag: Hoe zag de Nieuwe Wereld er ten tijde van Columbus uit.' Natuur, Wetenschap & Techniek 'Krachtig, uitdagend en belangrijk [...] 1491 dwingt ons na te denken over de wijze waarop de geschiedenis van Amerika wordt onderwezen.' The Washington Post 'Voor iedereen die denkt dat het één grote wildernis was, zal dit boek een fascinerende verrassing zijn.' The Times Tijdens een bezoek aan Yucatán, overdonderd en betoverd door de Maya-ruïnes, werd het Charles Mann in alle omvang duidelijk dat Columbus in 1492 een hemisfeer met mensen en culturen betrad die in alles verschilde van de ons toen bekende werelddelen Europa en Azië.Mann schrijft voor Science en The Atlantic Monthly.

download ebook 1491 pdf epub

Charles C. Mann

In this groundbreaking work of science, history, and archaeology, Charles C. Mann radically alters our understanding of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus in 1492. Contrary to what so many Americans learn in school, the pre-Columbian Indians were not sparsely settled in a pristine wilderness; rather, there were huge numbers of Indians who actively molded and influenced the land around them. The astonishing Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had running water and immaculately clean streets, and was larger than any contemporary European city. Mexican cultures created corn in a specialized breeding process that it has been called man's first feat of genetic engineering. Indeed, Indians were not living lightly on the land but were landscaping and manipulating their world in ways that we are only now beginning to understand. Challenging and surprising, this a transformative new look at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we knew.

download ebook 1491 pdf epub

Charles C. Mann

An analysis of America prior to 1492 describes how the research of archaeologists and anthropologists has transformed myths about the Americas, revealing that the cultures were far older and more advanced than previously known.

download ebook 1491 pdf epub

Charles C. Mann

Describes how recent archaeological research has transformed long-held myths about the Americas, revealing far older and more advanced cultures with a greater population than were previously thought to have existed.

download ebook 1491 pdf epub

Charles C. Mann

Describes how recent archaeological research has transformed long-held myths about the Americas, revealing far older and more advanced cultures with a greater population than were previously thought to have existed.

download ebook 1491 pdf epub

Charles C. Mann

An analysis of America prior to 1492 describes how the research of archaeologists and anthropologists has transformed myths about the Americas, revealing that the cultures were far older and more advanced than previously known.

download ebook 1491 (second edition) pdf epub

Charles C. Mann

In this groundbreaking work of science, history, and archaeology, Charles C. Mann radically alters our understanding of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus in 1492. Contrary to what so many Americans learn in school, the pre-Columbian Indians were not sparsely settled in a pristine wilderness; rather, there were huge numbers of Indians who actively molded and influenced the land around them. The astonishing Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had running water and immaculately clean streets, and was larger than any contemporary European city. Mexican cultures created corn in a specialized breeding process that it has been called man’s first feat of genetic engineering. Indeed, Indians were not living lightly on the land but were landscaping and manipulating their world in ways that we are only now beginning to understand. Challenging and surprising, this a transformative new look at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we knew. From the Trade Paperback edition.

download ebook william tyndale (1491-1536) pdf epub

Arne Dembek

English summary: This book on the life and work of the English reformer William Tyndale is the first comprehensive study of the theological work of one of England's most important sixteenth century theologians. Based on a detailed analysis of his writings, Arne Dembek draws a fascinating portrait of an English exile in Germany and the Netherlands who was utterly attracted by Reformation theology and therefore also deeply involved in the struggle for religious change in his homeland. Tyndale's contribution to sixteenth century Protestant theology is considered in the context of other contemporary authors, such as Luther and Bucer, and within the framework of the Reformation as a European movement. German description: Der englische Theologe, Bibelubersetzer und Martyrer William Tyndale gehort zu den grossen Unbekannten in der Geschichte des Protestantismus und ist zugleich ein wichtiges Bindeglied zwischen der Reformation auf dem europaischen Festland und der Umgestaltung der englischen Kirche unter Heinrich VIII. Arne Dembek zeichnet den Lebensweg Tyndales, der von England uber Deutschland ins Exil nach Antwerpen fuhrte, nach und stellt sein theologisches Gesamtwerk im historischen und theologiegeschichtlichen Kontext vor. Dabei entsteht das Bild eines originellen Auslegers der Heiligen Schrift, der als gluhender Verfechter reformatorischer Theologie sowohl aus dem Werk Luthers schopfte, zugleich jedoch auch in inhaltlicher Nahe zur oberdeutschen Reformation stand. Als einer der bedeutendsten reformatorischen Theologen Englands erscheint Tyndale so als Zeuge fur die Reformation als europaische Bewegung.

download ebook martin bucer 1491-1551 pdf epub

Marijn de Kroon,Willem van't Spijker

This present volume aims to stimulate Bucer-research as it brings together a selection of the best of De Kroon's and Van't Spijker's articles some of which appear for the first time in English translation. In the first section Bucer is described as taking his independent stand in the patristic and scholastic tradition. The next five articles go into the close personal and theological relation between Bucer and John Calvin and make clear how much of Bucer works through in Calvin and Calvinism. Bucer's efforts to bridge theological and ecclesiastical gaps brought him often in discussion with catholic as well as protestant theologians. How he dealt with this is the topic of the third section in this volume. The two following articles deal with his view on discipline and on the right of resistance. The next articles deal with Bucer's doctrinal legacy and the last section focuses on sanctification as one of the most important characteristics of his theology. The most important issues of contemporary Bucer-research and the outlines of his theology are convincingly presented in this volume by known experts for this topic.

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Martin Greschat

Au début du XVIe siècle, Martin Luther bouleversa la Chrétienté en donnant une réponse nouvelle à la question : " Comment puis-je être sauvé ? " Le Strasbourgeois Martin Bucer (1491-1551), qui fut à la fois son disciple et le maître du réformateur Jean Calvin, s'est attaché à prolonger cette interrogation : " Ce salut reçu gratuitement, comment puis-je le vivre, pour le bénéfice de mon prochain, dans l'Eglise et au sein de la société ? " Bucer est passé à la postérité pour ses efforts œcuméniques (visant à unir les " protestants ", voire toute la Chrétienté), qui lui ont conféré une dimension européenne. L'édition de ses œuvres et de sa correspondance est en plein essor. Toutefois, il n'existe pas de biographie de Bucer qui satisfasse aux exigences scientifiques contemporaines. Le présent ouvrage voudrait combler cette lacune. Il restitue l'homme aux multiples dimensions de son époque et de son environnement : le cadre familial, intellectuel, économique et socio-politique. Il retrace toutes les étapes d'une vie passionnante, depuis sa naissance à Sélestat (Alsace), dans une modeste famille de tonneliers, jusqu'à sa mort en Angleterre, en tant que professeur à l'Université de Cambridge, en passant par sa longue activité à Strasbourg (1523-1548). Il expose aussi, en se fondant sur de nombreuses sources inédites, sa pensée : le réformateur s'est exprimé sur des sujets aussi divers que la prédestination, l'éducation, le mariage ou le prêt à intérêt. Une dernière partie, historiographique, est consacrée à l'évolution de la recherche sur Bucer au cours de la décennie écoulée.

download ebook zweedse en zweedstalige finse auteurs in nederlandse vertaling 1491-2007. een bibliografie / svenska och finlandssvenska författare i nederländsk översättning 1491-2007. en bibliografi pdf epub

Ingeborg Kroon

Het algemene beeld van Zweedse literatuur in het Nederlandstalig gebied is die van Pippi Langkous, een creatie van Astrid Lindgren, die van politiecommissaris Wallander van Henning Mankell en Lisbet Salander uit de Millenium reeks van Stieg Larsson. Slaat men Zweedse en Zweedstalige Finse auteurs in Nederlandse vertaling 1491-2007. Een bibliografie. Svenska och finlandssvenska författare i nederländsk översättning 1491-2007. En bibliografi open, dan ziet men in een oogopslag dat er heel wat meer auteurs uit het Zweeds in het Nederlands door de eeuwen heen zijn vertaald. Door bibliografieën als deze in het onderzoek naar de cultuurbemiddeling te betrekken wordt het mogelijk een completer beeld te krijgen van vertaalde buitenlandse literatuur. Deze bibliografie geeft samen met de bibliografie van Diederik Grit over de Deense letteren in Nederland en Vlaanderen (1986) en de bibliografie over Noorse literatuur in Nederlandse vertaling van Raf De Saeger (2013, ook in deze serie) een bijzonder overzicht van de culturele contacten tussen Nederland en Scandinavië.

download ebook henricus martellus’s world map at yale (c. 1491) pdf epub

Chet Van Duzer

This book presents groundbreaking new research on a fifteenth-century world map by Henricus Martellus, c. 1491, now at Yale. The importance of the map had long been suspected, but it was essentially unstudiable because the texts on it had faded to illegibility. Multispectral imaging of the map, performed with NEH support in 2014, rendered its texts legible for the first time, leading to renewed study of the map by the author. This volume provides transcriptions, translations, and commentary on the Latin texts on the map, particularly their sources, as well as the place names in several regions. This leads to a demonstration of a very close relationship between the Martellus map and Martin Waldseemüller’s famous map of 1507. One of the most exciting discoveries on the map is in the hinterlands of southern Africa. The information there comes from African sources; the map is thus a unique and supremely important document regarding African cartography in the fifteenth century. This book is essential reading for digital humanitarians and historians of cartography.

download ebook 1491 - novas revelações das américas antes de colombo pdf epub

Charles C. Mann

Como era a América quando Colombo desembarcou por aqui? Muito diferente do que nos contam nossos livros escolares, revela o historiador Charles C. Mann no livro '1491'. Na maioria deles, o continente é descrito como um território vasto, pouquíssimo povoado por primitivos cujas culturas inevitavelmente se curvariam diante do poderio europeu. No entanto, Mann descobriu, para sua surpresa, resposta muito diferente do que pensa a maioria dos americanos e europeus. Por exemplo, Mann conta que em 1491 havia provavelmente mais pessoas vivendo nas Américas do que na Europa. Cidades como Tenochititlán, a capital asteca, à diferença de muitas capitais no velho mundo, tinham água corrente e ruas limpas e ajardinadas. E, detalhe - as primeiras cidades no continente já prosperavam antes mesmo de os egípcios terem construído as suas grandes pirâmides. Revela que, no México, os índios pré-colombianos desenvolveram o milho através de um processo reprodutivo tão sofisticado que a revista Science o descreveu como a 'primeira e talvez maior proeza de engenharia genética da humanidade'; ou ainda, os estudos que indicam que, na Amazônia, eram capazes de cultivar a floresta tropical sem destruí-la, processo que hoje os cientistas tentam recuperar.

download ebook martin bucer (1491–1551) pdf epub

Marijn de Kroon,Willem van't Spijker

This present volume aims to stimulate Bucer-research as it brings together a selection of the best of De Kroon's and Van't Spijker's articles some of which appear for the first time in English translation. In the first section Bucer is described as taking his independent stand in the patristic and scholastic tradition. The next five articles go into the close personal and theological relation between Bucer and John Calvin and make clear how much of Bucer works through in Calvin and Calvinism. Bucer's efforts to bridge theological and ecclesiastical gaps brought him often in discussion with catholic as well as protestant theologians. How he dealt with this is the topic of the third section in this volume. The two following articles deal with his view on discipline and on the right of resistance. The next articles deal with Bucer's doctrinal legacy and the last section focuses on sanctification as one of the most important characteristics of his theology.The most important issues of contemporary Bucer-research and the outlines of his theology are convincingly presented in this volume by known experts for this topic.