The reduction of inequalities within and between countries stands as a policy goal, and deserves to take centre stage in the design of the Sustainable Development Goals agreed during the Rio+20 Summit in 2012.The 2013 edition of A Planet for Life represents a unique international initiative grounded on conceptual and strategic thinking, and â€“ most importantly â€“ empirical experiments, conducted on five continents and touching on multiple realities. This unprecedented collection of works proposes a solid empirical approach, rather than an ideological one, to inform future debate.The case studies collected in this volume demonstrate the complexity of the new systems required to accommodate each country's specific economic, political and cultural realities. These systems combine technical, financial, legal, fiscal and organizational elements with a great deal of applied expertise, and are articulated within a clear, well-understood, growth- and job-generating development strategy.Inequality reduction does not occur by decree; neither does it automatically arise through economic growth, nor through policies that equalize incomes downward via ill conceived fiscal policies. Inequality reduction involves a collaborative effort that must motivate all concerned parties, one that constitutes a genuine political and social innovation, and one that often runs counter to prevailing political and economic forces.
This Occasional Paper assessed the social performance of nine forest management units (FMU) certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and compared it with the performance of nine similar noncertified FMUs in Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo and Gabon. Results showed that the longer one company remained in one place, the deeper social relations with the neighbouring population became. This in itself is conducive to an environment in which there is less conflict between the local population and logging companies. However, it is usually only after companies decided to pursue certification that several practical social improvements occurred. In particular, in certified FMUs, this study found better working and living conditions for workers and their families; more inclusive and better governed institutions for negotiations between the local population and logging companies, except with regard to conflict-resolution mechanisms; better managed and more effective benefit-sharing mechanisms; and innovative ways of dealing with problems related to infringement of customary uses. The complex historical and political-economic reality in which certification has developed in the Congo basin might well make issues of attribution and causality difficult to clarify. Yet results help establish a clear boundary that currently exists between certified and noncertified timber: The former is sourced in FMUs that implement not only legally mandated social standards but also voluntarily adopted ones that are superior and more effective. There should of course be no complacency from the FSC or logging companies with certified FMUs in comparing themselves with the ‘bottom,’ as the logic of the FSC is to reward more responsible forest managers who are assessed against ever-evolving standards, irrespective of the quality of national legislation. But one should also not forget that companies with certified FMUs in the study countries are competing less against a theoretical global logging company than against their neighbours, who daily produce the same species and sell on similar markets, albeit with much lower investments, especially those targeted to improve social performance. In this very competitive and uneven playing field, and with the scarce price premiums obtained so far, the evidence presented indicates that certification in the Congo basin has been able to push companies toward remarkable social progress.
This book tackles the disagreements that affect those looking to establish the macroeconomic policies needed to halve poverty over the next ten years. It presents a pro-poor macroeconomic policy allowing countries to recapture policy space, help promote growth, reduce inequality and diminish poverty in a sustainable way.
Progressive-era "poverty warriors" cast poverty in America as a problem of unemployment, low wages, labor exploitation, and political disfranchisement. In the 1990s, policy specialists made "dependency" the issue and crafted incentives to get people off welfare. Poverty Knowledge gives the first comprehensive historical account of the thinking behind these very different views of "the poverty problem," in a century-spanning inquiry into the politics, institutions, ideologies, and social science that shaped poverty research and policy. Alice O'Connor chronicles a transformation in the study of poverty, from a reform-minded inquiry into the political economy of industrial capitalism to a detached, highly technical analysis of the demographic and behavioral characteristics of the poor. Along the way, she uncovers the origins of several controversial concepts, including the "culture of poverty" and the "underclass." She shows how such notions emerged not only from trends within the social sciences, but from the central preoccupations of twentieth-century American liberalism: economic growth, the Cold War against communism, the changing fortunes of the welfare state, and the enduring racial divide. The book details important changes in the politics and organization as well as the substance of poverty knowledge. Tracing the genesis of a still-thriving poverty research industry from its roots in the War on Poverty, it demonstrates how research agendas were subsequently influenced by an emerging obsession with welfare reform. Over the course of the twentieth century, O'Connor shows, the study of poverty became more about altering individual behavior and less about addressing structural inequality. The consequences of this steady narrowing of focus came to the fore in the 1990s, when the nation's leading poverty experts helped to end "welfare as we know it." O'Connor shows just how far they had traveled from their field's original aims.
This book links tropical agri-chain dynamics – with which CIRAD and AFD have been involved for decades – to that of sustainable development. Increased environmental and social concerns urge agri-chain actors and development practitioners to design innovations, and public and private actors to invent regulations in connection with agri-chains to improve sustainability.With a view to contributing towards implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), this book examines the different roles of agri-chains: as vectors of development, as spaces of innovation, as objects of evaluation, and as arenas of regulation. It builds upon the findings and experiences of CIRAD and its researchers together with their Southern partners, and of AFD and its officers.Linking agricultural production with the other economic sectors, agri- chains are key spaces where local and global challenges to sustainability meet and where local and global actors experiment interlinked or common solutions.
The discovery and development of new computational methods have expanded the capabilities and uses of simulations. With agent-based models, the applications of computer simulations are significantly enhanced. Multi-Agent-Based Simulations Applied to Biological and Environmental Systems is a pivotal reference source for the latest research on the implementation of autonomous agents in computer simulation paradigms. Featuring extensive coverage on relevant applications, such as biodiversity conservation, pollution reduction, and environmental risk assessment, this publication is an ideal source for researchers, academics, engineers, practitioners, and professionals seeking material on various issues surrounding the use of agent-based simulations.
The twenty-first century is already an urban one. Cities are pivotal to sustainability concerns globalization, climate change, food security, environmental protection, and innovation.Today's urban actors, both citizens and their leaders, have a major responsibility as trustees of the future: their present actions will influence the shape and structure of cities, so that the generation to come may live healthy and contended lives.This volume takes the reader straight to the heart of how cities work, and identifies contemporary trends, mechanism and tools that can influence current strategies and choices.The authors show that urbanization is not a problem per se for sustainable development, but rather that cities, in all their diversity and complexity, offer solutions as well as challenges.The reader will be inspired by vital analyses of the next decade's windows of opportunity for sustainable urban growth.
Inequality endangers the fabric of our societies, distorts the functioning of democracy, and derails the globalization process. Yet, it has only recently been recognized as a problem worth examining. Why has this issue been neglected for so long? In Inequality: A Short History, Michele Alacevich and Anna Soci discuss the emergence of the inequality question in the twentieth century and explain how it is related to current issues such as globalization and the survival of democracy. The authors also discuss trends and the future of inequality. Inequality is a pressing issue that not only affects living standards, but is also inextricably linked to the way our democracies work.
Lisbon rising explores the role of a widespread urban social movement in Portugal's revolution and transition to democracy. The emergence of a grassroots movement of the urban held the promise that the revolution would deliver a truly popular and socialist democracy. Many thousands participated in democratic neighbourhood assemblies deciding the fate of the city, built houses, schools and hospitals, and occupied thousands of apartments. Yet, while the movement remains to this day a symbol of the possibilities of grassroots democracy, little is known about how it appeared, what role it played in the Carnation Revolution, and why it disappeared after 1975. Drawing on newly available sources, Lisbon rising challenges long-established views of civil society in southern Europe as weak, arguing that popular movements had an important and autonomous role democratisation, inviting us to rethink role of popular agency in the history and theory of transitions. Lisbon rising will be of interest students and scholars of twentieth-century European history, as well as of democratisation, social movements and citizenship in political science and sociology.
Southeast Asia is highly diversified in terms of socio-ecosystems and biodiversity, but is undergoing dramatic environmental and social changes. These changes characterize the recent period and can be illustrated by the effects of the Green Revolution in the late 1960s and 1970s, to the globalization of trade and increasing agronomic intensification over the past decade. Biodiversity Conservation in Southeast Asia provides theoretical overviews and challenges for applied research in living resource management, conservation ecology, health ecology and conservation planning in Southeast Asia. Five key themes are addressed: origin and evolution of Southeast Asian biodiversity; challenges in conservation biology; ecosystem services and biodiversity; managing biodiversity and living resources; policy, economics and governance of biodiversity. Detailed case studies are included from Thailand and the Lower Mekong Basin, while other chapters address cross-cutting themes applicable to the whole Southeast Asia region. This is a valuable resource for academics and students in the areas of ecology, conservation, environmental policy and management, Southeast Asian studies and sustainable development.
Issues In Agroecology – Present Status and Future Prospectus not only reviews aspects of ecology, but the ecology of sustainable food production systems, and related societal and cultural values. To provide effective communication regarding status and advances in this field, this series connects with many disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, environmental sciences, ethics, agriculture, economics, ecology, rural development, sustainability, policy and education, and integrations of these general themes so as to provide integrated points of view that will help lead to a more sustainable construction of values than conventional economics alone. Such designs are inherently complex and dynamic, and go beyond the individual farm to include landscapes, communities, and biogeographic regions by emphasizing their unique agricultural and ecological values, and their biological, societal, and cultural components and processes.
This book describes the ecosystem of the Andean watersheds, covering the Californian valley, tropical Andes, and southern Andes. Case studies of the new methods and techniques used for hydrological research in the Andes are provided, and sustainability issues pertaining to Andean water resources are discussed in the context of climate change, social and economic issues, and public policy. Furthermore, the impact of economic development on the Andean ecosystem, specifically the effect on the water cycle and the water-energy-food nexus, are examined.
In recent years, especially with the approach of the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in late 2015, the number of publications, conferences and meetings on climate change has been growing exponentially. Yet uncertainties remain concerning rural tropical areas where models are forecasting the onset of multiple disorders and trends are unclear. Meanwhile, the impact of climate change on the poorest communities is regularly documented, often prompting alarmist reactions. How can food security be achieved while adapting to and mitigating climate change? What are the main threats to agriculture in developing countries? How do farmers in these countries cope with the threats? What does agricultural research propose? What options have yet to be investigated? A broad scope of scientific research is underway to address these challenges. Diverse solutions are available, including new agricultural practices, water management, agricultural waste recycling, diagnosis of emerging diseases, payment for ecosystem services, etc. Gaining insight into the financial and political mechanisms that underlie international climate negotiations is also essential to design practical ways to deal with climate issues and meet sustainable development requirements in collaboration with farmers. This book pools the wealth of experience of dozens of researchers and development officers from a range of disciplines. We have focused on making it detailed, accurate and hopefully easy to read for researchers, students and all other informed readers.
This edited volume summarizes information about the situational context, threats, problems, challenges and solutions for sustainable pastoralism at a global scale. The book has four goals. The first goal is to summarize the information about the history, distribution and patterns of pastoralism and to identify the importance of pastoralism from social, economic and environmental perspectives. The results of an empirical investigation of the environmental and socio-economic implications of pastoralism in representative pastoral regions in the world are also incorporated. The second goal is to argue that breaking coupled human-natural systems of pastoralism leads to degradation of pastoral ecosystems and to create an analysis framework to assess the vulnerability of worldwide pastoralism. Our analysis framework provides approaches to help comprehensively understand the transitions and the impacts of human-natural systems in the pastoral regions in the world. The third goal is to identify the successful models in promoting coupled human-natural systems of pastoralism, and to learn lessons of breaking coupled human-cultural pastoralism systems through examining the representative cases in regions including Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Asia, Northern and Eastern Africa, the European Alps and South America. The fourth goal is to identify the strategies to build the resilience of the coupled human-natural systems of pastoralism worldwide. We hope that our book can facilitate the further examination of sustainable development of coupled human-natural systems of pastoralism by providing the summaries of existing data and information related to the pastoralism development, and by offering a framework for better understanding and analysis of their social, economic and environmental implications.
During the nineteenth century, white Americans sought the cultural transformation and physical displacement of Native people. Though this process was certainly a clash of rival economic systems and racial ideologies, it was also a profound spiritual struggle. The fight over Indian Country sparked religious crises among both Natives and Americans. In The Gods of Indian Country, Jennifer Graber tells the story of the Kiowa Indians during Anglo-Americans' hundred-year effort to seize their homeland. Like Native people across the American West, Kiowas had known struggle and dislocation before. But the forces bearing down on them-soldiers, missionaries, and government officials-were unrelenting. With pressure mounting, Kiowas adapted their ritual practices in the hope that they could use sacred power to save their lands and community. Against the Kiowas stood Protestant and Catholic leaders, missionaries, and reformers who hoped to remake Indian Country. These activists saw themselves as the Indians' friends, teachers, and protectors. They also asserted the primacy of white Christian civilization and the need to transform the spiritual and material lives of Native people. When Kiowas and other Native people resisted their designs, these Christians supported policies that broke treaties and appropriated Indian lands. They argued that the gifts bestowed by Christianity and civilization outweighed the pains that accompanied the denial of freedoms, the destruction of communities, and the theft of resources. In order to secure Indian Country and control indigenous populations, Christian activists sanctified the economic and racial hierarchies of their day. The Gods of Indian Country tells a complex, fascinating-and ultimately heartbreaking-tale of the struggle for the American West.
Over the past decade, renewables-based technology and sustainability assessment methods have grown tremendously. Renewable energy and products have a significant role in the market today, and the same time sustainability assessment methods have advanced, with a growing standardization of environmental sustainability metrics and consideration of social issues as part of the assessment. Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies is an extensive update and sequel to the 2006 title Renewables-Based Technology: Sustainability Assessment. It discusses the impressive evolution and role renewables have taken in our modern society, highlighting the importance of sustainability principles in the design phase of renewable-based technologies, and presenting a wide range of sustainability assessment methods suitable for renewables-based technologies, together with case studies to demonstrate their applications. This book is a valuable resource for academics, businesses and policy makers who are active in contributing to more sustainable production and consumption. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: The growing role of renewables in our society Sustainability in the design phase of products and processes Principles of sustainability assessment Land use analysis Water use analysis Material and energy flow analysis Exergy and cumulative exergy analysisCarbon and environmental footprint methods Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), social Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) Case studies: renewable energy, bio-based chemicals and bio-based materials.
Biodiversity and Health: Linking Life, Ecosystems and Societies fills the gap between the ecology of health and the concepts supported by international organizations, such as EcoHealth and One Health. The book provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how ecological sciences, environmental sciences, medical sciences, and social sciences may contribute to improve human health through conserving biodiversity and the services it provides to societies. Presents the first book to give a broad and integrated overview of the scientific disciplines that contribute to health From evolutionary ecology, to laws and policies, this book explores the links between health and biodiversity Demonstrates how ecological sciences, environmental sciences, medical sciences, and social sciences may contribute to improve human health
For a long time, the dynamics of urban and coastal areas have been the focus of administrators and decision makers in charge of public policy in order to better take into account anthropogenic pressure and the impact of climate change. This volume presents applications of remote sensing in urban environments and coastal zones, including the use of remote sensing in city planning (urban expansion, light pollution, air quality, etc.), observation of the properties of ocean color, the study of coastal dynamics (identifying coastlines and estimating sediment balances, etc.) and analysis of the dynamics of mangroves. This book, part of a set of six volumes, has been produced by scientists who are internationally renowned in their fields. It is addressed to students (engineers, Masters, PhD), engineers and scientists, specialists in remote sensing applied to the coastal environment and urban areas. Through this pedagogical work, the authors contribute to breaking down the barriers that hinder the use of Earth observation data. Clear-and-concise descriptions of modern methods of remote sensing for a variety of applications Explores the most current remote sensing techniques, with physical aspects of their measurement (theory) Presents physical principles, measurement, and data processing chapters that are provided for each technique described
Driven by the increasing importance of discussions around 'impact' and its meaning and implications for history, The Impact of History? brings together established and new voices to raise relevant questions, issues and controversies for debate. The chapters are articulated around the themes of public history, the politics of history, the role of history in the shaping of learning and the situation of history in the changing world of education. While this subject is driven differently by the research bodies and councils of different countries, similar debates about the value and place of the academy in society are taking place in the UK, the USA and Europe as well as in other parts of the world. Chapters cover diverse areas of history from this perspective including: public history national histories new technologies and the natural sciences campaigning histories the impact agenda. This collection is a political and intellectual intervention at a time when scholars and readers of history are being asked to explain why history matters and it seeks to intervene in the debates on ‘impact’, on education and on the role of the past in the shaping of our future. Bringing together leading authors from a wide range of fields, The Impact of History? is an accessible and engaging yet polemical and thought-provoking overview of the role of history in contemporary society.
This book gives an overview of frameworks, methods, and case studies useful for the analysis of the relations between agriculture and the city, in Europe and the Mediterranean. Its originality lies in the analysis of urban food systems sustainability from an actors’ perspective. All the chapters consider the key role of actors in the definition of innovations and pathways, which enhance sustainability, seen as an ongoing process. Part 1 presents systemic approaches of agricultural-urban interactions at the city-region scale in France, Egypt, Italy and Morocco. Part 2 deals with methods and tools for urban planning and local development, utilized to design and assess sustainable food systems. The Part 3 inventories the recent changes in urban agriculture and the new forms of governance which are emerging in European cities (Athens, Berlin, Lisbon, Montpellier, Paris and Zurich). These results are useful for students, academics and activists involved in local policies and projects.
This book investigates the interactions between different shifts in innovation models. It underlines ecological conditions and production intensification in the agriculture sector. In total six innovation processes were analyzed in different countries such as Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Haiti, Madagascar and Senegal. The similarities between these case studies are that they all demonstrate that sustainable and sufficient network between actors of the innovation are particularly useful for the development of agricultural innovation systems. The different papers demonstrate that there is a need for more commitment of public policy in innovation processes.
The divide between New Zealand’s poorest and wealthiest inhabitants has widened alarmingly over faster than in most other developed countries. Max Rashbrooke’s succinct introduction to these changes in our society, drawn from the larger work Inequality: A New Zealand Crisis and updated with the latest evidence, is essential reading. The Inequality Debate was updated in July 2014 with the latest data.
This book explores the origins and significance of the French concept of terroir, demonstrating that the way the French eat their food and drink their wine today derives from a cultural mythology that developed between the Renaissance and the Revolution. Through close readings and an examination of little-known texts from diverse disciplines, Thomas Parker traces terroir’s evolution, providing insight into how gastronomic mores were linked to aesthetics in language, horticulture, and painting and how the French used the power of place to define the natural world, explain comportment, and frame France as a nation.
This volume provides a reference textbook and comprehensive compilation of multifaceted perspectives on the legal issues arising from the conservation and exploitation of non-human biological resources. Contributors include leading academics, policy-makers and practitioners reviewing a range of socio-legal issues concerning the relationships between humankind and the natural world. The Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law includes chapters on fundamental and cutting-edge issues, including discussion of major legal instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. The book is divided into six distinct parts based around the major objectives which have emerged from legal frameworks concerned with protecting biodiversity. Following introductory chapters, Part II examines issues relating to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, with Part III focusing on access and benefit-sharing. Part IV discusses legal issues associated with the protection of traditional knowledge, cultural heritage and indigenous human rights. Parts V and VI focus on a selection of intellectual property issues connected to the commercial exploitation of biological resources, and analyse ethical issues, including viewpoints from economic, ethnobotanical, pharmaceutical and other scientific industry perspectives.
This book is a compilation of recent developments in the field of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaption (Eco-DRR/CCA) globally. It provides further evidence that ecosystem-based approaches make economic sense, and showcases how research has progressively filled knowledge gaps about translating this concept into practice. It presents a number of methods, and tools that illustrate how Eco-DRR/CCA has been applied for various ecosystems and hazard contexts around the world. It also discusses how innovative institutional arrangements and policies are shaping the field of Eco-DRR/CCA. The book is of relevance to scientists, practitioners, policy-makers and students in the field of ecosystem management for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.
This book addresses the role and importance of space in the respective fields of the social sciences and the humanities. It discusses how map representations and mapping processes can inform ongoing intellectual debates or open new avenues for scholarly inquiry within and across disciplines, including a wide array of significant developments in spatial processes, including the Internet, global positioning system (GPS), affordable digital photography and mobile technologies. Last but not least it reviews and assesses recent research challenges across disciplines that enhance our understanding of spatial processes and mapping at scales ranging from the molecular to the galactic.
Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products presents a compiled and renewed vision of the knowledge existing as well as the emerging challenges on animal husbandry and non-cow milk production, technology, chemistry, microbiology, safety, nutrition, and health, including current policies and practices. Non-bovine milk products are an expanding means of addressing nutritional and sustainable food needs around the world. While many populations have integrated non-bovine products into their diets for centuries, as consumer demand and acceptance have grown, additional opportunities for non-bovine products are emerging. Understanding the proper chain of production will provide important insight into the successful growth of this sector. This book is a valuable resource for those involved in the non-cow milk sector, e.g. academia, research institutes, milk producers, dairy industry, trade associations, government, and policy makers. Discusses important social, economic, and environmental aspects of the production and distribution of non-bovine milk and milk products Provides insight into non-bovine milk from a broad range of relevant perspectives with contributions from leading researchers around the world Focuses on current concerns including animal health and welfare, product safety, and production technologies Serves as a valuable resource for those involved in the non-cow milk sector
This book is devoted to Agroecological Crop Protection, which is the declension of the principles of agroecology to crop protection. It presents the concepts of this innovative approach, case studies and lessons and generic keys for agroecological transition. The book is intended for a wide audience, including scientists, experimenters, teachers, farmers, students. It represents a new tool, proposing concrete keys of action on the basis of feedbacks validated scientifically. Beyond the examples presented, it is therefore of general scope and proposes recommendations for all temperate and tropical cropping systems. It contributes to the training and teaching modules in this field and it is an updated information support for professionals and a teaching aid for students (agronomy, crop protection, biodiversity management, agroecology).
This book is a collection of original research papers that focus on recent developments in Spatial Analysis and Modelling with direct relevance to settlements and infrastructure. Topics include new types of data (such as simulation data), applications of methods to support decision-making, and investigations of human-environment data in order to recognize significance for structures, functions and processes of attributes. Research incorporated ranges from theoretical through methodological to applied work. It is subdivided into four main parts: the first focusing on the research of settlements and infrastructure, the second studies aspects of Geographic Data Mining, the third presents contributions in the field of Spatial Modelling, System Dynamics and Geosimulation, and the fourth part is dedicated to Multi-Scale Representation and Analysis. The book is valuable to those with a scholarly interest in spatial sciences, urban and spatial planning, as well as anyone interested in spatial analysis and the planning of human settlements and infrastructure. Most of the selected papers were originally presented at the “International Land Use Symposium (ILUS 2015): Trends in Spatial Analysis and Modelling of Settlements and Infrastructure” November 11-13 2015, in Dresden, Germany.
Agricultural production is highly sensitive to weather and climate-related disasters such as drought, storm and flood. While it is not possible to prevent the occurrence of natural disasters, the resultant disastrous effects can be reduced mitigated through proper planning and effective preparation. This book, based on a gathering of experts in Beijing, discusses ways to reduce the vulnerability of agriculture to disaster and extreme events, both by accurate and timely warning, and by impact-reducing countermeasures.
Originally published in 1957 this volume deals with the issue of large scale immigration into Freetown, Sierra Leone from the rural areas in the 1950s and the problems which arose as a result. It analyzes the way traditional social systems had to adjust to the demands of urban life and charts the growth of Freetown from its foundation in the 18th Century. The ethnic composition of its population and the character of the rural districts from which the migrants come are also discussed, along with the motives for migration, the nature of housing and employment.
Redefining Diversity and Dynamics of Natural Resources Management in Asia, Volumes 1-4 brings together scientific research and policy issues across various topographical area in Asia to provide a comprehensive overview of the issues facing the region. Sustainable Natural Resources Management in Dynamic Southeast Asia, Volume 1, pulls together regional experts in the field to look specifically at sustainability issues across the region, to see what has been implemented, what the impacts have been, and what other options are available. In the race to be a developed region, many Southeast Asian countries have foregone natural resources through haphazard use. As a result, the people are faced with numerous environmental challenges, particularly deforestation and forest degradation, biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, reduction in soil quality, and decreases in the quantity of available water. Community-based forest management is the involvement of local communities in the protection, conservation and management of public forests to prevent degradation through sustainable practices while still responding to the basic social and economic needs of local populations. When the people who depend on forest resources for their livelihoods are jointly responsible for managing and protecting them, they tend to do so in a more sustainable manner by focusing on the long-term benefits rather than the immediate short-term gains. However, when tenure rights are weak, unclear, or insecure, or offer limited benefits, people are incited in extracting more immediate benefits, resulting in suboptimal forest management and the reduction of carbon stocks. Features case studies that cover issues such as rising levels of deforestation, forest degradation, regional food security, ecosystem degradation, biodiversity loss, conflicts over natural resource use, water management issues, and impacts on local communities Includes contributions from local researchers who are dealing with these issues first hand, and on a daily basis Includes a comparative review on REDD+ implementation in different communities Focuses on sustainability issues across the region
This book details the primary concepts of Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA), integration of social aspects in product life cycles, quantification of social impacts in S-LCA, impact categorization in S-LCA, methodological aspects of S-LCA, and detailed case studies. As the societal implications of producing a product are coming to take on a new importance, the concept of Social Life Cycle Assessment has recently been developed and is becoming increasingly prominent. However, S-LCA is still in its infancy and its impact categories for many industrial segments are still under development.
The oil palm is a remarkable crop, producing around 40% of the world’s vegetable oil from around 6% of the land devoted to oil crops. Conventional breeding has clearly been the major focus of genetic improvement in this crop. A mix of improved agronomy and management, coupled with breeding selection have quadrupled the oil yield of the crop since breeding began in earnest in the 1920s. However, as for all perennial crops with long breeding cycles, oil palm faces immense challenges in the coming years with increased pressure from population growth, climate change and the need to develop environmentally sustainable oil palm plantations. In Oil Palm: Breeding, Genetics and Genomics, world leading organizations and individuals who have been at the forefront of developments in this crop, provide their insights and experiences of oil palm research, while examining the different challenges that face the future of the oil palm. The editors have all been involved in research and breeding of oil palm for many years and use their knowledge of the crop and their disciplinary expertise to provide context and to introduce the different research topics covered.