download ebook words and their meaning pdf epub

Howard Jackson

In this book, the development of the English dictionary is examined, along with the kinds of dictionary available, the range of information they contain, factors affecting their usage, and public attitudes towards them. As well as an descriptive analysis of word meaning, the author considers whether a thematic, thesaurus-like presentation might be more suited than the traditional alphabetical format to the description of words and their meaning.

download ebook defining language pdf epub

Geoff Barnbrook

Definition is a basic activity of language, of particular importance to linguists because of its use of language to describe itself. Beyond this inherent significance as a crucial element of language study, definitions also provide a rich potential source of the information needed for Natural Language Processing systems. This book describes an investigation of the subset of general language used in definition sentences and the development of a taxonomy of definition types, a grammar of definition sentences and parsing software which can extract their functional components. The work is based on definition sentences used in one of the dictionaries from the Cobuild range, and the book includes a brief history of the development of monolingual English dictionaries, an assessment of the concepts of sublanguages and local grammars and a full exploration of the results of the analysis and of the present and future applications of the taxonomy, grammar and parser.

download ebook the theory of english lexicography 1530–1791 pdf epub

Tetsuro Hayashi

This book serves as a welcome addition to the better known English Dictionary from Cawdrey to Johnson, 1604-1755, by Starnes & Noyes (new edition published by Benjamins 1991). Whereas Starnes & Noyes describe the history of English lexicography as an evolutionary progress-by-accumulation process, Professor Hayashi focuses on issues of method and theory, starting with John Palsgrave’s Lesclarissement de la langue francoyse (1530), to John Walker’s A Critical Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of the English Language (1791). This book also includes a detailed discussion of Dr. Johnson’s influential Dictionary of the English Language (1755).

download ebook encyclopedia of library and information science pdf epub

Marcel Dekker

Abstracts are useful in at least nine ways: 1. Papers in science and technology are published in more than 50 languages. Most users of technical publications can read only a few languages, and abstracts in one language help them to select documents for translation. The user needs, at most, two languages; at best, he needs only one language. 2. The technical literature is too large for an individual to acquire or scan. There are estimated to be 35,000 or more technical periodicals. More than 200,000 papers are published per year, with some overlap, in each of the fields of chemistry, biology, and biomedicine. Abstracts facilitate the selection of papers to be read. 3. Informative abstracts substitute for the original literature in many cases. 4. The reading or scanning of abstracts for selection of data or for deciding to read the original articles saves time over that required for selection from original documents. 5. Abstracts are more convenient to arrange into related groups than is the original literature. Adjacent technical papers bound in journals may often be unrelated. The same abstract can be placed in several categories less expensively than can originals. Many articles and reports fall into several classes of useful classification systems. Classified abstracts in a published journal bring together guides into a large field of knowledge—one several to many times larger than the user can read. 6. Retrospective searches are greatly aided by classified, indexed abstracts. Searching through reports or journals for any large field of knowledge is now impractical. 7. By the use of abstracts, accuracy of selection of literature to be read or translated is increased over that of selection from titles or titles plus annotations. The additional information in the abstract increases the accuracy. 8. Abstracts facilitate indexing in two ways: 1) The abstract concentrates the indexable subjects so that indexing proceeds at two to four times the rate required for original documents. 2) Elimination of the language problem enables assignment of abstracts for indexing by subject only. This specialization improves both the quality and the rate of indexing, because the subject specialist is not also required to read another language. 9. The preparation of articles, bibliographies, reviews, and talks requires organization of the material used; so do acquisition and searching. Abstracts can be used to facilitate this organization. For this purpose they can be copied, cut, and pasted. Organized abstracts also facilitate the indexing of bibliographies and reviews.

download ebook retailing and the language of goods, 1550–1820 pdf epub

Nancy Cox

In this book the author explores the various meanings assigned to goods sold retail from 1550 to 1820 and how their labels were understood. The first half of the book focuses on these labels and on mercantile language more broadly; how it was used in trade and how lexicographers and others approached what, for them, were new vocabularies. In the second half, the author turns to the goods themselves, and their relationships with terms such as ’luxury’, ’choice’ and ’love’; terms that were used as descriptors in marketing goods. The language of objects is a subject of ongoing interest and the study of consumables opens up new ways of looking at the everyday language of the early modern period as well as the experiences of trade and consumption for both merchant and consumer.

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Jeanne M. Machado

EARLY CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES IN LANGUAGE ARTS: EARLY LITERACY, Eleventh Edition responds to national legislation, professional standards, and public concern about the development of young children’s language and foundational literacy skills by providing current research-based instructional strategies in early language development. Activities throughout emphasize the relationship between listening, speaking, reading, writing (print), and viewing in language arts areas. This text addresses the cultural and ethnic diversity of children and provides techniques and tips for adapting curricula. Theory is followed by how-to suggestions and plentiful examples of classic books and stories, poems, finger plays, flannel board and alphabet experiences, puppetry, language games, drama, and phonemic and phonetic awareness activities. Students will also learn how, as teachers, they can best interact with children to promote appropriate language development, and how they can create a print-rich environment in the classroom. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

download ebook the history of the oxford english dictionary pdf epub

Thomas Vetsch

Seminar paper from the year 2001 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: Good, University of Zurich (English Seminar), 10 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The history of dictionaries certainly goes back to the 8th century, when the custom of making collections of glosses grew up. These collections, called glossarium or glossary, were a great help to students, as they were also a sort of dictionary. In the 10th century, Abbot Ælfric produced a Latin grammar book, including a short Latin-English dictionary - the first of its kind. In 1440 Galfridus Grammaticus produced the first English-Latin dictionary which was printed in 1499 by Pynson and bore the title Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum. Until the 16th century, the emphasis of dictionaries lay on translating foreign words into English. Apparently, there was no need for an English-English dictionary, i.e. a dictionary which described English words to English people. In that time a lot of foreign words, mostly Latin ones, made their way into ‘standard’ English, which at first caused no debate but then was criticised by language purists. According to them English was in danger of being taken over by foreign languages and needed special support. This idea was the beginning of English-English dictionaries. In 1604 Robert Cawdry brought out his Table Alphabetical. About three thousand ‘hard’ words which had become common in English were listed and explained. Henry Cockeram produced the first work with the title The English Dictionary in 1623. Like other dictionaries of that time, it primarily dealt with ‘difficult’ English words. A polyglot dictionary of eleven languages was published in 1617 by John Minsheu. The Ductor in Linguas was the most monumental dictionary in the 17th century and for the first time, etymology was given some attention. In 1674 John Ray produced a dictionary which dealt with dialect words. It was an unexpected success and people all over the country began looking for additional local terms and sent them to Ray, who brought out a second and enlarged edition of this dictionary in 1691. John Ray can be regarded as the “remote originator of the English Dialect Society” (Mathews 1966, p. 26). Until then, dictionaries followed the line of old glossaries and only dealt with terms which were not common or rather unusual in the English language. This changed in the 18th century when the first attempts to publish dictionaries containing all English words were made. In 1702 John Kersey published A New English Dictionary; or, a complete collection of the most proper and significant words, commonly used in the language... [...]

download ebook the art of writing & speaking the english language pdf epub

Sherwin Cody

The classic manual on writing and speaking - learn how to communicate clearly and effectively and discover how you may be holding yourself back.

download ebook dictionary of jargon (routledge revivals) pdf epub

Jonathon Green

First published in 1987, the Dictionary of Jargon expands on its predecessor Newspeak (Routledge Revivals, 2014) as an authoritative reference guide to specialist occupational slang, or jargon. Containing around 21, 000 entries, the dictionary encompasses a truly eclectic range of fields and includes extensive coverage of both British and U.S. jargon. Areas dealt with range from marketing to medicine, from advertising to artificial intelligence and from skiing to sociology. This is a fascinating resource for students of lexicography and professional lexicographers, as well as the general inquisitive reader.

download ebook literacy: helping students construct meaning pdf epub

J. David Cooper,Michael D. Robinson,Jill Ann Slansky,Nancy D. Kiger

A leading resource for K-8 literacy programs, this extremely popular reading methods text has a simple goal: to provide aspiring teachers with the tools to help every student learn to read and write. LITERACY: HELPING STUDENTS CONSTRUCT MEANING, 10th Edition has been completely reorganized to better meet the changing needs of college and university instructors; for instance, with early coverage of assessment in recognition of its foundational nature. This text continues to provide pre-service and in-service teachers with the information, strategies, and techniques they need to assist their students in becoming literate. It is distinguished in the field by its use of practical literacy lessons and authentic examples of children's literature, which clearly demonstrate how to teach reading and writing. The Common Core State Standards are also fully integrated throughout the text, and full-color children's stories (in excerpts or in their entirety) model extended literacy lessons. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

download ebook humanity: an introduction to cultural anthropology pdf epub

James Peoples,Garrick Bailey

Using engaging stories and clear writing, HUMANITY: AN INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Tenth Edition, introduces cultural anthropology within a solid framework centered on globalization and culture change. Peoples and Bailey focus on the social and cultural consequences of globalization, emphasizing culture change and world problems. The book’s engaging narrative provides new ways of looking at many of the challenges facing the world in this century. As you explore contemporary issues including recent debates on gay marriage, cultural and economic globalization, population growth, hunger, and the survival of indigenous cultures, you will gain a better understanding of the cultural information you need to successfully navigate in today’s global economy. The authors emphasize the diversity of humanity and reveal why an appreciation and tolerance of cultural differences is critical in the modern world. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

download ebook dictionary of the english language (complete and unabridged) pdf epub

Samuel Johnson

Johnson’s English Dictionary is the first dictionary ever written in English, the only one written by a single author, and, according to many experts, the greatest of all English dictionaries. Jane Austen, Thomas Jefferson, Charles Darwin, Charles Dickens and Charlotte Brontë all used what was known for over a century as “the dictionary”, while Samuel Taylor Coleridge said he viewed with suspicion any man “who should speak of it without respect and gratitude”. Since its first publication, it has been indispensable to those learning English, those studying its history, and those who care about its literature. Informative, irreverent and funny, it is a joy for everyday readers and a browser’s paradise. By making this masterpiece available once more, the release of the Lexicos edition marks an event in ebook publishing. The only unabridged ebook edition of this great work, indeed the only one available in any format, it has been professionally edited by qualified scholars (not scanned or OCR’d) and formatted for ePUB. It is based on the 1773 edition, the final edition of the Dictionary expanded and revised by Johnson himself. It also incorporates those entries included in the original 1755 edition and cut out in 1773, along with Johnson’s original preface, and his “Plan of a Dictionary of the English Language,” written in 1747. It is fully searchable and contains an active table of contents.

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Manik Joshi

5000 Difficult English Words and their Meanings. Advanced Words in English Language | One of the Best English Dictionaries for Advanced English Learners | Most used tough English Words | Vocabulary Building -- 5000 Words and Meanings-- Letter A -- 275 Words | Letter B -- 242 Words | Letter C -- 438 Words | Letter D -- 321 Words | Letter E -- 238 Words | Letter F -- 233 Words | Letter G -- 171 Words | Letter H -- 149 Words | Letter I -- 266 Words | Letter J -- 51 Words | Letter K -- 19 Words | Letter L -- 132 Words | Letter M -- 175 Words | Letter N -- 66 Words | Letter O -- 109 Words | Letter P -- 393 Words | Letter Q -- 22 Words | Letter R -- 303 Words | Letter S -- 787 Words | Letter T -- 205 Words | Letter U -- 172 Words | Letter V -- 98 Words | Letter W -- 112 Words | Letter XYZ -- 23 Words Sample This: Difficult English Words -- A -- 0001 -- abandon (v.) -- to discard; to dump; to leave sb/sth permanently || related words: abandoned (adj.), abandonment (n.) 0002 -- abase (v.) -- to do sth that makes people have less respect for you; to degrade || related word: abasement (n.) 0003 -- abashed (adj.) -- ashamed in a social situation; embarrassed 0004 -- abate (v.) -- to become very weak; to fade away; to subside || related word: abatement (n.) 0005 -- abdicate (v.) -- to step down from the position of being king; to renounce; to give up || related word: abdication (n.) 0006 -- aberrant (adj.) -- abnormal, unsocial or weird; nonstandard || related word: aberration (n.) 0007 -- abet (v.) -- to assist, encourage or support sb in doing sth illegal, immoral, etc. 0008 -- abhor (v.) -- to extremely hate or dislike sb/sth for ethical reasons; to detest || related words: abhorrent (adj.), abhorrence (n.) 0009 -- abide (v.) -- to reside somewhere 0010 -- abiding (adj.) -- (of feelings, ideas, etc.) long lasting 0011 -- abject (adj.) -- having no hope or self-esteem; miserable || related word: abjectly (adv.) 0012 -- abjure (v.) -- to give up a belief or idea publicly; to renounce 0013 -- ablaze (adj.) -- on fire; afire | full of strong feelings, bright lights, etc. 0014 -- ablutions (n.) -- action of cleaning or washing yourself 0015 -- abnegate (v.) -- to reject sth that you like; to renounce || related word: abnegation (n.) 0016 -- abode (n.) -- the place where you reside/live; residence 0017 -- abolish (v.) -- to get rid of a law, rule, etc. officially; to eliminate || related words: abolition (n.), abolitionist (n.) 0018 -- abominate (v.) -- to hate intensely || related words: abominable (adj.), abomination (n.) 0019 -- aboriginal (adj.) -- primitive 0020 -- abortive (adj.) -- (of an action) unsuccessful 0021 -- abound (v.) -- to be plentiful 0022 -- about-turn (n.) -- reversal of a plan or opinion, etc. 0023 -- above board (adj./adv.) -- honest or genuine / honestly or genuinely 0024 -- abrasion (n.) -- cut or scratch 0025 -- abrasive (adj.) -- rough | rude || related words: abrasively (adv.), abrasiveness (n.) 0026 -- abreast (adv.) -- side by side 0027 -- abridge (v.) -- to shorten a book, etc. || related words: abridged (adj.), abridgement (n.) 0028 -- abrogate (v.) -- to officially cancel a law || related word: abrogation (n.) 0029 -- abrupt (adj.) -- sudden | impolite || related words: abruptly (adv.), abruptness (n.) 0030 -- abscond (v.) -- to run away; to escape 0031 -- abseil (v.) -- to descend a steep cliff 0032 -- absolution (n.) -- forgiveness 0033 -- absolutism (n.) -- rule by dictator; autocracy || related word: absolutist (adj./n.) 0034 -- absolve (v.) -- to officially forgive somebody 0035 -- abstain (v.) -- to give up or stay away from sth bad, illegal or immoral | to decide not to cast your vote in election | related words: abstainer (n.), abstention (n.) 0036 -- abstemious (adj.) -- self-disciplined 0037 -- abstinence (n.) -- restraint from eating or drinking because of ethical reasons | related word: abstinent (adj.) 0038 -- abstracted (adj.) -- absentminded || related word: abstractedly (adv.) 0039 -- abstruse (adj.) -- that cannot be understood easily; obscure 0040 -- abundant (adj.) -- plentiful || related word: abundantly (adv.) 0041 -- abut (v.) -- to be next to sth; to adjoin 0042 -- abysmal (adj.) -- extremely bad || related word: abysmally (adv.) 0042 -- abyss (n.) -- enormously deep hole 0044 -- accede (v.) -- to give approval to a plan, request, etc. | to become ruler 0045 -- accentuate (v.) -- to highlight something; to emphasize || related word: accentuation (n.) 0046 -- accession (n.) -- the state of becoming a ruler 0047 -- acclaim (v.) -- to praise or greet sb/sth in public || related word: acclamation (n.) 0048 -- acclimatize (acclimate) (v.) -- to get used to new climate, situation, etc. || related word: acclimatization (acclimation) (n.) 0049 -- accolade (n.) -- honor for a marvelous achievement 0050 -- accommodate (v.) -- to give a place to stay | to adjust | to oblige or help || related words: accommodating (adj.), accommodation (n.) 0051 -- accord (n./v.) -- official agreement | to agree officially 0052 -- accost (v.) -- to suddenly come close and talk to sb 0053 -- accouter (accouter) (v.) -- to put on special clothes, equipments, etc. | related word: accoutrements (n.) 0054 -- accredit (v.) -- to officially recognize sb/sth || related words: accredited (adj.), accreditation (n.) 0055 -- accretion (n.) -- addition of a layer in a gradual way; newly but slowly added layer 0056 -- accrue (v.) -- to mount up; to accumulate || related word: accrual (n.) 0057 -- acculturate (v.) -- to adjust yourself in different culture || related word: acculturation (n.) 0058 -- acerbic (adj.) -- bitter in speech || related word: acerbity (n.) 0059 -- Achilles heel (n.) -- weak point in character 0060 -- acme (n.) -- the highest point in development; peak 0061 -- acolyte (n.) -- helper of a leader 0062 -- acoustic (adj.) -- connected with sound | designed to make natural sound || related words: acoustically (adv.), acoustician (n.), acoustics (n.) 0063 -- acquiesce (v.) -- to agree without arguing || related words: acquiescent (adj.), acquiescence (n.) 0064 -- acrid (adj.) -- bitter 0065 -- acrimony (n.) -- bitterness or hostility || related words: acrimonious (adj.), acrimoniously (adv.) 0066 -- acrobat (n.) -- circus performer || related words: acrobatic (adj.), acrobatically (adv.), acrobatics (n.) 0067 -- acronym (n.) -- short form of a group of words 0068 -- acuity (n.) -- the ability to hear, see or think in a clear way 0069 -- acumen (n.) -- intelligence 0070 -- ad hominem (adj./adv.) -- (of criticism, etc.) targeted to sb’s character 0071 -- ad infinitum (adv.) -- infinitely or repeatedly 0072 -- ad nauseam (adv.) -- repeatedly in a boring way 0073 -- adamant (adj.) -- too determined; obstinate || related word: adamantly (adv.) 0074 -- adamantine (adj.) -- unbreakable 0075 -- addendum (n.) -- extra section in a book; appendix 0076 -- addle (v.) -- to confuse || related word: addled (adj.) 0077 -- adduce (v.) -- to cite sth 0078 -- adhere (v.) -- to stick fast to sth | to follow a particular set of rules || related word: adherence (n.) 0079 -- adherent (n.) -- supporter of a particular set of beliefs 0080 -- adhesive (adj./n.) -- sticky | glue || related word: adhesion (n.) 0081 -- adieu (exclamation) -- goodbye 0082 -- adjure (v.) -- to seriously request or urge sb to do something 0083 -- adlib (v.) -- to speak without preparation 0084 -- admonish (v.) -- to speak harshly to sb; to warn || related words: admonitory (adj.), admonition (n.) 0085 -- adore (v.) -- to admire or love || related words: adorable (adj.), adoring (adj.), adoringly (adv.), adorably (adv.), adoration (n.) 0086 -- adorn (v.) -- to decorate || related word: adornment (n.) 0087 -- adrift (adj.) -- floating | without aim 0088 -- adroit (adj.) -- able to deal with people cleverly || related words: adroitly (adv.), adroitness (n.) 0089 -- adumbrate (v.) -- to summarize 0090 -- advent (n.) -- arrival of an important person or event 0091 -- adventitious (adj.) -- unplanned; accidental 0092 -- aesthete (n.) -- admirer of art and beauty || related words: aesthetic (adj./n.), aesthetically (adv.), aesthetics (n.), aestheticism (n.) 0093 -- affable (adj.) -- friendly || related words: affably (adv.), affability (n.) 0094 -- affinity (n.) -- attraction or resemblance 0095 -- afflict (v.) -- to create trouble for sb || related word: affliction (n.) 0096 -- affluent (adj.) -- wealthy || related word: affluence (n.) 0097 -- affray (n.) -- fight or violence in a public place 0098 -- affront (n./v.) -- insulting remark | to insult or upset sb 0099 -- aficionado (n.) -- sb who is too much interested in a particular activity, subject, etc.: enthusiast 0100 -- aflame (adj.) -- on fire | colorful and brightly lit | excited 0101 -- agglomerate (adj./n./v.) -- formed into a mass | collection or mass | to collect and form a group || related word: agglomeration (n.) 0102 -- aggrandizement (n.) -- increase in the power of country or person 0103 -- aggravate (v.) -- to make sth worse || related words: aggravated (adj.), aggravating (adj.), aggravation (n.) 0104 -- aggrieved (adj.) -- angry or hurt 0105 -- aggro (n.) -- irritating problems, too aggressive behavior 0106 -- aghast (adj.) -- shocked 0107 -- agile (adj.) -- quick to notice sth; swift in movement || related word: agility (n.) 0108 -- agog (adj.) -- excited while trying to find out sth 0109 -- agonize (v.) -- to worry a lot || related words: agonized (adj.), agonizing (adj.), agonizingly (adv.) 0110 -- agony (n.) -- pain 0111 -- agrarian (adj.) -- related to farming 0112 -- aground (adv.) -- ashore 0113 -- ail (v.) -- to create problems | to make sb ill 0114 -- airy-fairy (adj.) -- impractical; idealistic 0115 -- ajar (adj.) -- (of a door, window, etc.) slightly open 0116 -- al fresco (adj./adv.) -- outdoors 0117 -- alacrity (n.) -- quickness in an excited way 0118 -- albatross (n.) -- something that creates difficulty and get in the way of progress 0119 -- alchemy (n.) -- magical power that can transform things 0120 -- alien (adj.) -- foreign | hostile 0121 -- alienate (v.) -- to lose your support with sb; to feel isolated || related word: alienation (n.) 0122 -- alight (adj./v.) -- on fire; shining brightly | to get down from the bus, etc. 0123 -- allay (v.) -- to reduce the intensity of feelings, emotions, etc. 0124 -- allegiance (n.) -- faithfulness towards your senior or a group you belong to 0125 -- alleviate (v.) -- to reduce the intensity of sth bad || related word: alleviation (n.) 0126 -- allure (n.) -- attraction or fascination | related words: alluring (adj.), alluringly (adv.), allurement (n.) 0127 -- allusion (n.) -- indirect reference or remark || related word: allusive (adj.) 0128 -- alluvial (adj.) -- made of sand deposited by river or sea || related word: alluvium (n.) 0129 -- aloft (adv.) -- in the air; overhead 0130 -- also-ran (n.) -- unsuccessful person 0131 -- altercation (n.) -- a quarrel in a public place 0132 -- altruism (n.) -- selflessness || related word: altruistic (adv.) 0133 -- ambidextrous (adj.) -- able to use both the hands equally well 0134 -- ambience (n.) -- surroundings or atmosphere of a place || related word: ambient (adj.) 0135 -- ambivalence (n.) -- state of two minds, showing mixed feelings || related words: ambivalent (adj.), ambivalently (adv.) 0136 -- amble (v.) -- to walk slowly 0137 -- ambrosia (n.) -- delicious thing to eat 0138 -- ambulatory (adj.) -- connected with walking; mobile 0139 -- amenable (adj.) -- agreeable or controllable 0140 -- amicable (adj.) -- pleasant and friendly || related word: amicably (adv.) 0141 -- amiss (adj.) -- wrong 0142 -- amity (n.) -- peaceful and friendly relationship 0143 -- amnesia (n.) -- loss of memory || related word: amnesiac (n.) 0144 -- amorous (adj.) -- expressing feeling of love passionately || related word: amorously (adv.) 0145 -- amorphous (adj.) -- formless or shapeless 0146 -- amplify (v.) -- to increase sound ; to add more information to a story, etc. || related word: amplification (n.) 0147 -- anachronism (n.) -- old-fashioned person or thing || related word: anachronistic (adj.) 0148 -- analgesia (n.) -- inability to feel pain || related word: analgesic (adj./n.) 0149 -- analogy (n.) -- a comparison that shows similarities or correlation between two things 0150 -- anathema (n.) -- sth that you hate strongly 0151 -- anecdote (n.) -- a short and real story or event 0152 -- angst (n.) -- deep fear, tension or anxiety; nervousness 0153 -- anguish (n.) -- severe suffering || related word: anguished (adj.) 0154 -- animated (adj.) -- full of life; energetic || related word: animatedly (adv.) 0155 -- animism (n.) -- belief that natural objects possess soul || related words: animistic (adj.), animist (n.) 0156 -- animosity (n.) -- enmity 0157 -- animus (n.) -- hatred 0158 -- annals (n.) -- historical records; yearly record of events 0159 -- annex (v.) -- to forcefully take over another country || related word: annexation (n.) 0160 -- annihilate (v.) -- to defeat or destroy completely || related word: annihilation (n.) 0161 -- annotate (v.) -- to add notes to explain sth || related words: annotated (adj.), annotation (n.) 0162 -- annul (v.) -- to cancel sth officially || related word: annulment (n.) 0163 -- anodyne (adj.) -- inoffensive, harmless 0164 -- anoint (v.) -- to smear somebody with water or oil as part of a religious ceremony 0165 -- anomalous (adj.) -- abnormal, unusual or unexpected || related words: anomalously (adv.), anomaly (n.) 0166 -- anomie (n.) -- unsocial or immoral behaviour 0167 -- anorexia (n.) -- fear of being fat || related word: anorexic (adj./n.) 0168 -- antagonize (v.) -- to irritate or annoy sb | to make sb no longer friendly with you || related words: antagonistic (adj.), antagonistically (adv.), antagonist (n.), antagonism (n.) 0169 -- antecedent (adj./n.) -- previous | something that has been followed by something else 0170 -- antediluvian (adj.) -- primitive; outdated 0171 -- anthology (n.) -- compilation of stories, poems, etc. from different sources 0172 -- antipathy (n.) -- hostility || related word: antipathetic (adj.) 0173 -- antiquated (adj.) -- old-fashioned 0174 -- antiquity (n.) -- the ancient past; an object, a work of art, etc. from the ancient past 0175 -- antithesis (n.) -- exact opposite | contrast || related word: antithetical (adj.) 0176 -- apathy (n.) -- lack of interest || related words: apathetic (adj.), apathetically (adv.) 0177 -- aphorism (n.) -- a short phrase that expresses sth sensible || related word: aphoristic (adj.) 0178 -- aplomb (n.) -- self-confidence in a difficult situation 0179 -- apnea (apnoea) (n.) -- temporary loss of breath during sleep 0180 -- apocalypse (n.) -- complete or severe destruction || related word: apocalyptic (adj.) 0181 -- apocryphal (adj.) -- dubious; mythical 0182 -- apoplexy (n.) -- loss of the ability to feel 0183 -- apostate (n.) -- sb who has changed their religious beliefs || related word: apostasy (n.) 0184 -- apostle (n.) -- strong supporter or follower of an idea or a policy 0185 -- appalled (adj.) -- shocked, distressed || related words: appalling (adj.), appallingly (adv.) 0186 -- apparent (adj.) -- obvious; noticeable 0187 -- apparition (n.) -- spirit or ghost 0188 -- appease (v.) -- to calm down sb by accepting their demands || related word: appeasement (n.) 0189 -- append (v.) -- to add sth as an attachment || related word: appendage (n.) 0190 -- appetizing (adj.) -- mouth-watering 0191 -- applaud (v.) -- to clap in order to praise sb; to praise | related word: applause (n.) 0192 -- appliqué (n.) -- ornamental needlework || related word: appliquéd (adj.) 0193 -- apportion (v.) -- to divide and distribute || related word: apportionment (n.) 0194 -- apposite (adj.) -- suitable 0195 -- appraise (v.) -- to assess the quality of something; to evaluate | related words: appraisal (n.), appraiser (n.) 0196 -- appreciable (adj.) -- noticeable || related word: appreciably (adv.) 0197 -- appurtenance (n.) -- small part of sth; accessory 0198 -- apropos (prep.) -- concerning 0199 -- aquifer (n.) -- a layer of rock that can hold or transmit water. 0200 -- arable (adj.) -- related to growing crops 0201 -- arbiter (n.) -- a person who is authorized to settle a dispute 0202 -- arbitrary (adj.) -- illogical | uncontrolled || related words: arbitrarily (adv.), arbitrariness (n.) 0203 -- arbitrate (v.) -- to officially settle a dispute between two parties || related word: arbitration (n.) 0204 -- arboreal (adj.) -- connected with trees 0205 -- arcane (adj.) -- mysterious; puzzling 0206 -- archetype (n.) -- a typical example 0207 -- ardent (adj.) -- enthusiastic; excited || related word: ardently (adv.) 0208 -- ardor (ardour) (n.) -- passion 0209 -- arduous (adj.) -- difficult and tiring; laborious || related word: arduously (adv.) 0210 -- argot (n.) -- special words used by a particular profession; jargon 0211 -- arid (adj.) -- dry | ordinary || related word: aridity (n.) 0212 -- Armageddon (n.) -- an extremely terrible war 0213 -- armistice (n.) -- break in fighting; ceasefire 0214 -- arm-twisting (n.) -- persuasion by force 0215 -- arouse (v.) -- to cause particular emotion | to awaken someone from sleep || related word: arousal (n.) 0216 -- arraign (v.) -- to charge sb for a crime || related word: arraignment (n.) 0217 -- arrant (adj.) -- (of sth bad) absolute or complete 0218 -- arrogant (adj.) -- very proud || related word: arrogantly (adv.) 0219 -- artifact (artefact) (n.) -- historical object 0220 -- ascend (v.) -- to go/lead/move up; to rise 0221 -- ascendancy (n.) -- dominance or supremacy || related words: ascendant (n.), ascension (n.) 0222 -- ascetic (adj./n.) -- enormously self-disciplined | strict in self-discipline || related word: asceticism (n.) 0223 -- ascribe (v.) -- to state or believe that sth is caused or done by a particular thing/person or written by a particular person | to think sb/sth should have a particular quality || related words: ascribable (adj.), ascription (n.) 0224 -- ashen (adj.) -- light in colour, whiter than usual 0225 -- asinine (adj.) -- foolish 0226 -- askew (adj./adv.) -- not straight, bent 0227 -- aslant (adv.) -- at an angle; sloping 0228 -- asperity (n.) -- harshness of tone || related word: aspersions (n.) 0229 -- aspire (v.) -- to aim big 0230 -- assail (v.) -- to attack sb violently; to criticize sb strongly 0231 -- assault (n./v.) -- violent attack | to attack sb violently 0232 -- assent (n./v.) -- official agreement | to agree officially 0233 -- assertive (adj.) -- self-confident || related words: assertively (adv.), assertiveness (n.) 0234 -- assiduous (adj.) -- hard-working || related words: assiduously (adv.), assiduity (n.) 0235 -- assign (v.) -- to allocate 0236 -- assimilate (v.) -- to incorporate; to include || related word: assimilation (n.) 0237 -- assuage (v.) -- to lessen painful feeling 0238 -- astonish (v.) -- to extremely surprise sb 0239 -- astound (v.) -- to shock or surprise sb too much || related words: astounded (adj.), astounding (adj.), astoundingly (adv.) 0240 -- astride (adv./prep.) -- with a leg on each side of sth 0241 -- astringent (adj.) -- harsh; severe || related word: astringency (n.) 0242 -- astronomical (adj.) -- (of a price) excessive || related word: astronomically (adv.) 0243 -- astute (adj.) -- very clever; shrewd || related words: astutely (adv.), astuteness (n.) 0244 -- asunder (adv.) -- not together 0245 -- atavistic (adj.) -- connected with primitive humans 0246 -- ataxia (n.) -- loss of control of bodily movements || related word: ataxic (adj.) 0247 -- atone (v.) -- to express regret and make up for sth || related word: atonement (n.) 0248 -- atrocity (n.) -- terrible and violent act; evil || related words: atrocious (adj.), atrociously (adv.), atrociousness (n.) 0249 -- attenuate (v.) -- to make sth less forceful or effective || related words: attenuated (adj.), attenuation (n.) 0250 -- attire (n.) -- clothes || related word: attired (adj.) 0251 -- attuned (adj.) -- completely familiar with sth 0252 -- audacity (n.) -- boldness; rudeness || related words: audacious (adj.), audaciously (adv.) 0253 -- auditory (adj.) -- related to hearing 0254 -- augment (v.) -- to increase || related word: augmentation (n.) 0255 -- augur (v.) -- to foretell, foresee or predict || related word: augury (n.) 0256 -- aura (n.) -- noticeable quality of surrounding areas 0257 -- aural (adj.) -- related to hearing and listening || related word: aurally (adv.) 0258 -- austere (adj.) -- having strict attitude; having simple style; having uncomfortable way of life || related words: austerely (adv.), austerity (n.) 0259 -- autism (n.) -- loss of ability to form relationship or communicate with people || related word: autistic (adj.) 0260 -- autocrat (n.) -- a ruler with absolute power | || related word: autocratic (adj.), autocratically (adv.) autocracy (n.), 0261 -- avarice (n.) -- greed || related word: avaricious (adj.) 0262 -- avenue (n.) -- path; a way of making progress 0263 -- aver (v.) -- to firmly express a truth 0264 -- averse (adj.) -- not liking sth || related word: aversion (n.) 0265 -- avert (v.) -- to prevent or foil sth undesirable from happening 0266 -- avid (adj.) -- enthusiastic || related words: avidly (adv.), avidity (n.) 0267 -- avow (v.) -- to say sth openly; to affirm || related words: avowed (adj.), avowedly (adv.), avowal (n.) 0268 -- awash (adj.) -- flooded with water; containing large amount of something 0269 -- awe (n./v.) -- admiration and wonder | to respect || related word: awed (adj.) 0270 -- awe-inspiring (adj.) -- splendid 0271 -- awesome (adj.) -- amazing || related word: awesomely (adv.) 0272 -- awestruck (adj.) -- fascinated 0273 -- awful (adj./adv.) -- too bad; excessive | extremely || related word: awfulness (n.) 0274 -- awry (adj./adv.) -- wrong; untidy 0275 -- axiom (n.) -- a principle that is believed to be true || related word: axiomatic (adj.)

download ebook reflections on communicative language teaching pdf epub

Peter McKenzie-Brown

To become a great English teacher, what do you need to know and what do you have to do? I reflected continually on those questions during a four-year teaching sojourn in Thailand. In this book I present my answers. After being invited to develop a course in TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) at Chiang Mai University’s Language Institute, I developed this text for my students – all of them westerners preparing for a stint teaching English overseas. I improved the text continually while I was teaching, and revised it again once I decided to make it available as an e-book. The book’s structure is straightforward: Study notes, essays, readings, and appendices. Besides commentaries on the complexity of the English language theory and the many challenges English teachers face, these materials cover grammar, pronunciation, a summary of writing errors (and ways to correct them,) and a glossary of language teaching terms. Clearly useful for my teachers in training, these materials are equally valuable for teachers in the field. I would be remiss not to describe the TEFL course itself. Besides three-hour classes five days a week, my students – typically 12-15 in number, who generally became close friends for the duration of the course – broke into three groups each evening to participate in two-hour English classes for Thai students. (Three experienced teachers – I was one of them – conducted the classes). For the last two weeks of the five-week program, the students took turns preparing their own lesson plans. Each conducted one lesson while the instructor observed. This book covers a fair amount of information about Thai history and culture. For those expecting to teach outside Thailand, this material may be interesting only. However, it also carries a lesson for the teacher working far away. Because of the importance of socio-linguistic understanding, wherever you find your teaching assignment you need to take the initiative and learn about local culture and history. Ideally, you should also begin to learn the local language. Becoming part of local society, rather than remaining an outsider, makes life easier for you. It also helps you appreciate the language learning challenges that your students are facing.

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Simon Emmerson

Technology revolutionised the ways that music was produced in the twentieth century. As that century drew to a close and a new century begins a new revolution in roles is underway. The separate categories of composer, performer, distributor and listener are being challenged, while the sounds of the world itself become available for musical use. All kinds of sounds are now brought into the remit of composition, enabling the music of others to be sampled (or plundered), including that of unwitting musicians from non-western cultures. This sound world may appear contradictory - stimulating and invigorating as well as exploitative and destructive. This book addresses some of the issues now posed by the brave new world of music produced with technology.

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Lee Galda,Lauren A. Liang,Bernice E. Cullinan

LITERATURE AND THE CHILD, 9th Edition, offers thorough, concise coverage of the genres and formats of children’s literature and guidance on using literature in the classroom. With a focus on diverse award-winning titles, this market-leading text includes beautifully written and illustrated discussions of exemplary titles for readers in nursery school through middle school. A stunning design features interior illustrations by Lauren Stringer, an award-winning children’s book author and illustrator. Each genre chapter contains criteria for evaluating literary quality, equipping students with a resource to guide text selection in the classroom. Practical, research-based information about teaching appears throughout, including sample teaching ideas and an emphasis on the importance of selecting and teaching complex texts. Extensive booklists provide excellent, ongoing resources and highlight texts that emphasize diversity. This text helps teachers understand how to select books that best serve their curriculum goals as well as the interests and needs of their students. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

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Christopher Gorse,David Johnston,Martin Pritchard

This A to Z is the most up-to-date dictionary of building, surveying, and civil engineering terms and definitions available. Written by an experienced team of experts in the respective fields, it covers in over 7,500 entries the key areas of construction technology and practice, civil and construction engineering, construction management techniques and processes, and legal aspects such as contracts and procurement. Illustrations complement entries where necessary and other extra features include entry-level web links, which are listed and regularly updated on a companion website. Its wide coverage makes it the ideal reference for students of construction and related areas, as well as for professionals in the field.

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Charles Hoffer,Darrell Bailey

Best-selling MUSIC LISTENING TODAY, 6e takes readers on a journey through the history of music from the early Western period to the present day--teaching them how to listen as they go. Readers will recognize many of the musical selections, which were carefully chosen to pique their interest in a variety of music. The Sixth Edition also includes the chronological framework readers need to understand and appreciate different styles, forms, and genres of music--helping them thoroughly develop their listening skills. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

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Jane Straus,Lester Kaufman,Tom Stern

A revised and updated new edition of the bestselling workbook and grammar guide The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation is a concise, entertaining workbook and guide to English grammar, punctuation, and usage. This user-friendly resource includes simple explanations of grammar, punctuation, and usage; scores of helpful examples; dozens of reproducible worksheets; and pre- and post-tests to help teach grammar to students of all ages. Appropriate for virtually any age range, this authoritative guide makes learning English grammar and usage simple and fun. This updated Eleventh Edition reflects the latest updates to English usage and grammar and features a fully revised two-color design and lay-flat binding for easy photocopying. Clear and concise, easy-to-follow, offering "just the facts" Fully updated to reflect the latest rules in grammar and usage along with new quizzes Ideal for students from seventh grade through adulthood in the US and abroad For anyone who wants to understand the major rules and subtle guidelines of English grammar and usage, The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation offers comprehensive, straightforward instruction.

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S.Chand Experts

The Enrich English Course is a modern and challenging course, designed to expose learners to real-life situations that enable them to experience and respond to language in different scenarios. The books aim at the development of communicative proficiency through a graded syllabus of structural patterns, and the rich and varied contexts of English literature.

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Norman Lewis

The most effective vocabulary builder in the English language provides a simple, step-by-step method that will increase your knowledge and mastery of written and spoken English. Word Power Made Easy does more than just add words to your vocabulary. It teaches ideas and a method of broadening your knowledge as an integral part of the vocabulary building process. Do you always use the right word? Can you pronounce it—and spell it—correctly? Do you know how to avoid illiterate expressions? Do you speak grammatically, without embarrassing mistakes? If the answer to any of these questions is no, you need Word Power Made Easy. Written in a lively, accessible, and timeless style, and loaded with helpful reviews, progress checks, and quizzes to reinforce the material, this classic resource has helped millions learn to speak and write with confidence.

download ebook merriam-webster\'s advanced learner\'s english dictionary, stephen j. perrault, 2008 pdf epub

Merriam-Webster, Inc

Preface Merriam-Webster[1]s Advanced Learner[1]s English Dictionary is not only an entirely new dictionary created by the editorial staff of America[1]s oldest dictionary publisher it also marks the beginning of a new kind of publishing for this company. Over the past 160 years, Merriam-Webster has produced hundreds of dictionaries and other reference books, and many of those books have been useful to learners of English as a second or foreign language, but this dictionary is the first one that we have produced specifically to meet the needs of those learners. The creation of this dictionary reflects the reality that English has become an international language, and that American English, in particular, is now being used and studied every day by millions of people around the world. We believe that we have a unique opportunity to help students of English in the U.S. and elsewhere to understand our language and to use it more clearly and effectively. This dictionary provides coverage of both American and British English. Its coverage of British English is current and comprehensive. Its coverage of American English is, we believe, unparalleled. The thousands of entries, senses, phrases, forms, and examples that are labeled US in this dictionary will provide learners with a clearer and more precise description of idiomatic American usage than has ever before been available in a dictionary of this kind. The approximately 100,000 entries in this dictionary include a broad selection of words from all major areas of interest, including popular culture, business, sports, science, and technology, among others. Our main focus in choosing entries has been to include the language that people are most likely to need and encounter in their daily lives. The evidence used to make decisions about which words and senses to include was drawn, first of all, from our continually growing database of citation text, now numbering more than 100 million words. That evidence was augmented in essential ways by the resources that are available to us over the Internet, and in particular by the enormous databases of Lexis-Nexis, which provided editors with ready access to vast amounts of material from both American and British sources. Not so long ago dictionary editors had to rely entirely on evidence that had been painstakingly collected over a period of years by a program of reading. That program continues at Merriam-Webster, providing the basis of our citation database, and we continue to find great value in the traditional methods of evidence-gathering, but we also have fully embraced the power of the electronic tools that have become available in recent decades. The use of computers now makes it possible for dictionary editors to examine and describe language at a level of detail that was never before imaginable. The definitions in this dictionary are written in simple language. In many cases, a single use of a word will be given more than one definition. Very often a word will be defined by a quite simple definition, followed by a definition that is perhaps somewhat less simple or that shows how the defined word is related to another word. For example, the verb pioneer is defined both as to help create or develop new ideas, methods, etc. and as to be a pioneer in the development of something . The first definition can certainly stand alone, but the second definition enhances it by underscoring the close connection between the verb pioneer and the noun pioneer a connection that native speakers are unconsciously aware of, but that learners may not sense so strongly. The inclusion of multiple definitions thus helps learners both to expand their vocabularies and to gain a fuller picture of a word[1]s meaning by approaching it from a slightly different direction. Notes of various kinds are also used abundantly throughout the dictionary to clarify and emphasize aspects of usage that cannot be easily captured or expressed in a definition. True fluency in any language, of course, is not acquired by memorizing dictionary definitions, but by hearing and seeing how words are used in combination with each other to express meaning. In writing this book we have devoted a great deal of care and attention to creating simple and accurate definitions, but our feeling throughout has been that the real heart of the dictionary is its examples. We know from experience that dictionary users, whether native speakers or learners, want more examples. They want examples for common words, and they want examples for difficult words. Although not every entry in this dictionary includes an example there is usually very little value in providing an example for, say, a noun like microchip or monoplane the great majority of the entries do, and a large percentage of them include more than one. There are more than 160,000 usage examples in this dictionary. A few of them are quotations taken from well-known works of American and British literature, but most are made-up examples, based on evidence of real English, that have been carefully written to show words being used in appropriate contexts which accurately reflect their uses in actual speech and writing. A large number of the examples in this dictio- 7a JOBNAME: Webster’s Learners D PAGE: 2 SESS: 12 OUTPUT: Mon Jul 14 12:25:33 2008 /data31/webster/dict/mw−learners−dictionary/003−fm−preface nary do not simply illustrate usage, they also explain it and expand upon it in other ways. Many examples include synonymous words or phrases shown within brackets, thus allowing the reader either to learn a new word or to have the connection between the meanings of words reinforced. Examples also often include glosses, so that phrases and compound terms whose meanings are not obvious can be explained clearly and simply. And we have very frequently explained the meaning of entire phrases and sentences by restating them with other, simpler words. Many examples also show how the same word can be used in slightly different ways[1]or how related words can be used in different ways[1]to say the same thing. We believe that such examples are of great value to the learner they are the next best thing to having a native speaker available by your side to help clarify what you are seeing and hearing. Any comprehensive dictionary contains an enormous amount of information, and dictionary editors have typically been required to use a variety of abbreviations and other shortcuts to fit all that information into the limited space available between the covers of a book. Two of our main goals in creating the entries for this dictionary were to keep the use of such shortcuts to a minimum and to employ conventions that are readily understandable. We set out to create a dictionary that could be easily used without frequent reference to explanatory materials. To achieve that, we have minimized the use of abbreviations and symbols although we were not able to eliminate them entirely and we have tried to use labels and notes whose meanings are immediately clear. We have also made every effort to organize entries in a way that allows users to find the information they want quickly. The most obvious convention we have adopted for this purpose is the use of blue text for examples. The blue text not only highlights the examples, it also makes it much easier to identify the other elements of an entry[1]the definitions, usages notes, and so on[1]and to navigate through long entries to find the particular information that you need. It can sometimes be easy to forget that a large dictionary like this one has to be written word by word and line by line. Each definition, each example, each note that appears in this dictionary is the product of careful and strenuous thought by at least one person, and often by many people, since the nature of the writing and editing process is such that multiple stages of review are required before the work is truly finished. The names of the many people who worked on this book are listed in the following paragraphs. The length of this project has meant that some of the people who were with us when it began had moved on to other parts of their lives by the time it ended. The Merriam-Webster editors credited here include both current and former staff members. Former Director of Defining E. Ward Gilman and former Editor in Chief Frederick C. Mish, both now retired, provided helpful suggestions when the project was in its initial planning stages, as did consultant Robert Ilson. President and Publisher John M. Morse was also involved in the initial planning of the project and provided support and encouragement throughout it. The editors who had the first crack at creating entries included, in no particular order, Karen L. Wilkinson, Susan L. Brady, Thomas F. Pitoniak, Kathleen M. Doherty, Emily A. Brewster, G. James Kossuth, Emily B. Arsenault, Penny L. Couillard-Dix, Emily A. Vezina, Benjamin T. Korzec, Ilya A. Davidovich, Judy Yeh, Rose Martino Bigelow, Kory L. Stamper, Peter A. Sokolowski, Neil S. Serven, Deanna Stathis, Anne Eason, Joanne M. Despres, Rebecca Bryer-Charette, and myself. Dr. Ilson undertook a complete review of the work that was done at that early stage, and he made many valuable corrections and additions. He was particularly helpful in providing good examples and in augmenting our coverage of British English by identifying distinctions often very subtle ones between American and British usage. The pronunciations throughout the dictionary were provided by Joshua S. Guenter. The essential task of checking and re-checking cross-references was handled by Maria Sansalone, Donna L. Rickerby, and Adrienne M. Scholz. The work of copyediting the entries that had been created by the definers was done by editors Wilkinson, Brady, Brewster, Couillard-Dix, Korzec, Yeh, Stamper, Sokolowski, Serven, Eason, Despres, Bryer- Charette, and me. The complexity of this project was such that an additional reviewing stage was added following copyediting. That work was done by editors Bryer-Charette, Korzec, Brewster, Stamper, Brady, Couillard-Dix, Wilkinson, and Madeline L. Novak. The responsibility for final review of the manuscript fell to me. The proofreading of the galleys and page proofs was done by many of the editors mentioned above and by Anne P. Bello and Paul S. Wood. The primary proofreader for the in-house keying of revisions was Kathleen M. Doherty. Specialized editing assistance was provided by editors Wood and Doherty. Most of the illustrations that appear throughout were newly created for this book. The new black-and-white illustrations were drawn by Tim Phelps of Johns Hopkins Univ., and the color illustrations were researched and drawn by Merriam-Webster editor Diane Caswell Christian. Mark A. Stevens oversaw the creation of the new illustrations and planned the black-and-white illustrations along with Lynn Stowe Tomb, who also coordinated work with Mr. Phelps and converted the drawings to electronic form for typesetting. Freelancer Loree Hany and editors Jennifer N. Cislo and Joan I. Narmontas assisted in art research. The selection of the 3,000 entry words that are highlighted as being most important for learners to know was based in large part on initial recommendations provided by James G. Lowe and Madeline L. Novak. Additional research was carried out and final selections were made by John M. Morse. The Geographical Names section was prepared by Daniel J. Hopkins. The other back matter sections were prepared by Mark A. Stevens, C. Roger Davis, and outside contributor Orin Hargraves. Robert D. Copeland arranged for 8a Preface JOBNAME: Webster’s Learners D PAGE: 3 SESS: 12 OUTPUT: Mon Jul 14 12:25:33 2008 /data31/webster/dict/mw−learners−dictionary/003−fm−preface Content Data Solutions, Inc., to convert the dictionary data files to a suitable format before typesetting them. The converted files were checked by Donna L. Rickerby. Daniel B. Brandon keyed revisions into the converted data files and contributed other technical help. Thomas F. Pitoniak directed the book through its typesetting stages. Project coordination and scheduling were handled by Madeline L. Novak, who was also chiefly responsible for the book[1]s typography and page design. Our notions about what this book could and should be continued to develop as we progressed through the different stages of editing, and many of the people named above made useful suggestions that led to changes, both minor and major, in the book[1]s style and content. Further changes were implemented thanks to comments and suggestions from a group of consultants who reviewed a selection of entries at a fairly late stage in the project. We gratefully acknowledge the important contributions of those consultants, whose names are listed below. We want first of all to express our thanks to Jerome C. Su, President of the Taiwan Association of Translation and Interpretation and Chair of Bookman Books, Taipei, Taiwan, for all of his advice and good suggestions at the reviewing stage and throughout the project. Our other consultants, all of whom provided us with carefully considered and valuable feedback, were Virginia G. Allen, author and educator, Ohio State Univ. James H. Miller, ESL teacher Elizabeth Niergarth, ESL instructor consultant, Harvard Univ. Susan Despres Prior, ESL teacher Caroline Wilcox Reul, lexicographer and ESL teacher Maggie Sokolik, Director, Technical Communication Program, College of Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley Yukio Takahashi, English teacher, Sendai Shirayuri Gakuen High School, Sendai, Japan Gregory Trzebiatowski, Headmaster, Thomas Jefferson School, Concepción, Chile and his students Felipe Opazo, Paula Reyes, and Carolina Sanhueza and Rob Waring, author and educator, Notre Dame Seishin Univ., Okayama, Japan. All of the editors who worked on this book have of course had the experience of studying a foreign language, with varying degrees of success. This project has given us renewed opportunities to understand what it is like to approach Englishwith all its complexities, subtleties, and apparent inconsistenciesas a learner rather than as a native speaker, and that experience has reminded us again of just how challenging the task of learning a new language truly is. We hope and believe that Merriam-Webster[1]s Advanced Learner[1]s English Dictionary is a resource that will make that task easier for students of English. Stephen J. Perrault Editor

download ebook chemistry for today: general, organic, and biochemistry pdf epub

Spencer Seager,Michael Slabaugh

Distinguished by its superior allied health focus and integration of technology, The Eighth Edition of Seager and Slabaugh’s CHEMISTRY FOR TODAY: GENERAL, ORGANIC, and BIOCHEMISTRY meets students’ needs through diverse applications, examples, boxes, interactive technology tools, and, new to this edition, real life case studies. CHEMISTRY FOR TODAY dispels students’ inherent fear of chemistry and instills an appreciation for the role chemistry plays in our daily lives through a rich pedagogical structure and an accessible writing style with lucid explanations. In addition, the book provides greater support in both problem-solving and critical-thinking skills--the skills necessary for student success. By demonstrating the importance of chemistry concepts to students’ future careers, the authors not only help students set goals, but also help them focus on achieving them. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

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Edmund Wong

Growing up in Singapore in the 80s has been challenging. I didn't know much about life or economy. I didn't know what I want to do apart from playing. I know I had to study and get a job. In school we had to write composition about our profession when we grow up. I had never wanted to be a philosopher, let alone writing about social philosophy. It is just that growing up with a single parent is tough. It is tougher when she is uneducated and I had to learn most things by myself. After my National Service, I decided to further studies. That was when I was exposed to philosophy and psychology in the UK. After graduation in 1999 with a degree in Electronics, I came back home to resume my National Service (I disrupt it and had about 2 months left). The life in UK exposed me to something that I did not notice when growing up in Singapore. I find local social scene unsatisfactory. They are Confucians, Muslims, Christians, freethinkers and humanists. Most time, they are preoccupied with how to earn more money. Religion does not give me the fulfillment that it promised. In addition, most were based on Singaporeans' interpretation of the Bible and Buddhism's dharma. Most times, I feel that everything that Singaporeans do has got to do with wealth creation or at least with the expenditure of it. It end up like what Pope Francis referred to as "the cult of money." Organised religion involves more fear-mongering than cultivating an inner grace and peace. Hence this book is about how I relate an ancient thinker's ethics (Aristotle) to the present day. I find Aristotle's ethics to most suit my needs as a man and lover. It does not pretend to be more than what it seek, the golden mean. It does require us to think and explore the values to find balance and achieve wisdom with intellectual and moral virtues. I also find other philosophers (French or not) particularly insightful and thought-provoking. They offer me explanation and exploration on subjects like love, sex, and death. Freudian psychoanalysis are also very penetrating in their findings and insights. Moreover, I needed some contemporary psychological theory, not in-depth psychoanalysis, to back Aristotle's model of ethics (intellectual and moral virtues). Hence the psychological background of my book. I got acquainted with these psychological theories when I was preparing myself to be a financial consultant. I later found out more about them and they became useful in my work and life. Hence I would like to share it with people in Asia so that they can ask the right kind of questions in life in order to learn more about themselves and the social milieu they are living in. Because everyone of us are affected by the social sciences (politics, economics and sociology). This book will, I hope, allow us to understand why we are irrational and how we can make rational changes through reasonings in their life and achieving eudaimonia. My wish is simply to share what I enjoy doing, apart from creating useful ideas to improve the world. Through my book, I hope to make others understand religion, science and philosophy and how they play an increasingly integral part in the Asian century.

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Jo Ray McCuen-Metherell,Anthony C. Winkler

READINGS FOR WRITERS is the preeminent rhetorical reader for the freshman composition course. This bestseller continues its tradition of providing comprehensive coverage of the writing and research process, while also offering a wide variety of appealing readings. With more than 70 selections from a broad range of topics and genres, this text offers something to spark excitement in any writer. This edition has been updated to reflect guidelines from the 2016 MLA HANDBOOK, Eighth Edition. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

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Jo Ray McCuen-Metherell,Anthony C. Winkler

READINGS FOR WRITERS is the preeminent rhetorical reader for the freshman composition course. This bestseller continues its tradition of providing comprehensive coverage of the writing and research process, while also offering a wide variety of appealing readings. With more than 70 selections from a broad range of topics and genres, this text offers something to spark excitement in any writer. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

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Sigmund Freud

An extraordinary collection of thematically linked essays, including THE UNCANNY, SCREEN MEMORIES and FAMILY ROMANCES. Leonardo da Vinci fascinated Freud primarily because he was keen to know why his personality was so incomprehensible to his contemporaries. In this probing biographical essay he deconstructs both da Vinci's character and the nature of his genius. As ever, many of his exploratory avenues lead to the subject's sexuality - why did da Vinci depict the naked human body the way hedid? What of his tendency to surround himself with handsome young boys that he took on as his pupils? Intriguing, thought-provoking and often contentious, this volume contains some of Freud's best writing.

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David Porter

This workbook features a range of activities to help students learn and revise non-technical English vocabulary, essential for the study of any subject at a UK university. Self-study exercises and practical classroom activities are included, making it easy to revise classroom knowledge at home. Containing a range of word games, crosswords, quizzes and exercises, this workbook will help build vocabulary confidence in a fun, memorable way. Check Your Vocabulary for Academic English is a must-have workbook for all non-native English speakers wishing to expand their language skills

download ebook the international law of property pdf epub

John G. Sprankling

Does a right to property exist under international law? The traditional answer to this question is no: a right to property can only arise under the domestic law of a particular nation. But the view that property rights are exclusively governed by national law is obsolete. Identifiable areas of property law have emerged at the international level, and the foundation is now arguably being laid for a comprehensive international regime. This book provides a detailed investigation into this developing international property law. It demonstrates how the evolution of international property law has been influenced by major economic, political, and technological changes: the embrace of private property by former socialist states after the end of the Cold War; the globalization of trade; the birth of new technologies capable of exploiting the global commons; the rise of digital property; and the increasing recognition of the human right to property. The first part of the book analyzes how international law impacts rights in specific types of property. In some situations, international law creates property rights, such as rights in aboriginal lands, deep seabed minerals, and satellite orbits. In other areas, it harmonizes property rights that arise at the national level, such as rights in intellectual property, rights in foreign investments, and security interests in personal property. Finally, it restricts property rights that may be recognized at the national level, such as rights in celestial bodies, contraband, and slaves. The second part of the book explores the thesis that a global right to property should be recognized as a general matter, not merely as a moral precept but rather as an entitlement that all nations must honour. It establishes the components of such a right, arguing that the right to property at the international level should be seen in the context of five key components of ownership: acquisition, use, destruction, exclusion, and transfer. This highly innovative book makes an important contribution to how we conceptualize the protection of property and to the understanding that much of this protection now takes place at the international level.

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William J. Long

This book, which presents the whole splendid history of English literature from Anglo-Saxon times to the close of the Victorian Era, has three specific aims. The first is to create or to encourage in every student the desire to read the best books, and to know literature itself rather than what has been written about literature. The second is to interpret literature both personally and historically, that is, to show how a great book generally reflects not only the author's life and thought but also the spirit of the age and the ideals of the nation's history. The third aim is to show, by a study of each successive period, how our literature has steadily developed from its first simple songs and stories to its present complexity in prose and poetry.

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Jo A. Cates

This critically annotated guide to reference literature of print and broadcast journalism features more than 800 descriptive and evaluative annotations. Nearly 90% of the entries are new or substantially revised, and there is a new chapter on commercial databases and Internet sources.

download ebook word by word pdf epub

Kory Stamper

“We think of English as a fortress to be defended, but a better analogy is to think of English as a child. We love and nurture it into being, and once it gains gross motor skills, it starts going exactly where we don’t want it to go: it heads right for the goddamned electrical sockets.” With wit and irreverence, lexicographer Kory Stamper cracks open the obsessive world of dictionary writing, from the agonizing decisions about what to define and how to do it to the knotty questions of ever-changing word usage. Filled with fun facts—for example, the first documented usage of “OMG” was in a letter to Winston Churchill—and Stamper’s own stories from the linguistic front lines (including how she became America’s foremost “irregardless” apologist, despite loathing the word), Word by Word is an endlessly entertaining look at the wonderful complexities and eccentricities of the English language.

download ebook understanding figurative language pdf epub

Sam Glucksberg

This book examines how people understand utterances that are intended figuratively. Traditionally, figurative language such as metaphors and idioms has been considered derivative from more complex than ostensibly straightforward literal language. Glucksberg argues that figurative language involves the same kinds of linguistic and pragmatic operations that are used for ordinary, literal language. Glucksberg's research in this book is concerned with ordinary language: expressions that are used in daily life, including conversations about everyday matters, newspaper and magazine articles, and the media. Metaphor is the major focus of the book. Idioms, however, are also treated comprehensively, as is the theory of conceptual metaphor in the context of how people understand both conventional and novel figurative expressions. A new theory of metaphor comprehension is put forward, and evaluated with respect to competing theories in linguistics and in psychology. The central tenet of the theory is that ordinary conversational metaphors are used to create new concepts and categories. This process is spontaneous and automatic. Metaphor is special only in the sense that these categories get their names from the best examples of the things they represent, and that these categories get their names from the best examples of those categories. Thus, the literal "shark" can be a metaphor for any vicious and predatory being, from unscrupulous salespeople to a murderous character in The Threepenny Opera. Because the same term, e.g.,"shark," is used both for its literal referent and for the metaphorical category, as in "My lawyer is a shark," we call it the dual-reference theory. The theory is then extended to two other domains: idioms and conceptual metaphors. The book presents the first comprehensive account of how people use and understand metaphors in everyday life.

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Ryder Carroll

New York Times bestseller! The long-awaited book by the founder of the enormously popular Bullet Journal® organizational system. For years Ryder Carroll tried countless organizing systems, online and off, but none of them fit the way his mind worked. Out of sheer necessity, he developed a method called the Bullet Journal that helped him become consistently focused and effective. When he started sharing his system with friends who faced similar challenges, it went viral. Just a few years later, to his astonishment, Bullet Journaling is a global movement. The Bullet Journal Method is about much more than organizing your notes and to-do lists. It's about what Carroll calls "intentional living": weeding out distractions and focusing your time and energy in pursuit of what's truly meaningful, in both your work and your personal life. It's about spending more time with what you care about, by working on fewer things. His new book shows you how to... * Track the past: Using nothing more than a pen and paper, create a clear and comprehensive record of your thoughts. * Order the present: Find daily calm by tackling your to-do list in a more mindful, systematic, and productive way. * Design the future: Transform your vague curiosities into meaningful goals, and then break those goals into manageable action steps that lead to big change. Carroll wrote this book for frustrated list-makers, overwhelmed multitaskers, and creatives who need some structure. Whether you've used a Bullet Journal for years or have never seen one before, The Bullet Journal Method will help you go from passenger to pilot of your own life.

download ebook the interpretation of dreams pdf epub

Sigmund Freud

Originally published in 1913. The contents Include: The Scientific Literature of Dream Problems – The Method of Dream Interpretation – Analysis of a Specimen Dream – The Dream as Wish Fulfilment – Distortion in Dreams – The Material and Sources of Dreams – The Dream Work – The Psychology of Dream Processes – etc. Many of the earliest books on psychology and psychoanalysis, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. Home Farm Books are republishing many of these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Wilhelm goes through deep self-realisation and decides to escape his empty life of a bourgeois businessman. After a failed romance with the theatre, Wilhelm commits himself to the mysterious Tower Society. A coming-of-age tale, a story of education and disillusionment, a novel of ideas ranging across literature, philosophy and politics, a masterpiece that resists all pigeonholing.

download ebook bryson\'s dictionary of troublesome words pdf epub

William Bryson

One of the English language's most skilled and beloved writers guides us all towards precise, mistake-free usage. In the middle 1980s Bill Bryson was a copy editor for the London Times with the brash idea that he could fill a hole in the British book market for a concise, accessible, handy guide to proper usage. A complete unknown, he nonetheless sold Penguin Books on the idea, and the result was The Penguin Dictionary of Troublesome Words, which sold decently enough on both sides of the Atlantic. Now, fifteen years later, Bill Bryson has become, well, Bill Bryson -- and his terrifically useful little book has been revised, updated and Americanized to become Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words. Precise, prescriptive, sometimes (like its author) amusingly prickly, this book belongs on the desk of every person who cares enough about our language not to maul or misuse or distort it. Move over, Strunk and White.

download ebook learn indonesian language phrase book pdf epub

Haneef Khee Abdullah

This is more than just a handy Indonesian phrasebook, with additional information on the culture and also tips to be easily accepted by local Indonesians. Includes video links in the book for enhanced learning. Any seasonal traveler to Indonesia will tell you that having the ability to speak the Indonesian language and knowing its culture will make a huge difference in a person’s travel experience in Indonesia, be it on a business trip or a leisure holiday visit. Knowing the very essentials of the language will get you around easily, accomplishing daily activities, from relating to the people, travelling from point to point, paying for the right product at the right price, checking-in and out of hotels, dinning-in and getting much more out of your visit. That is the reason for this book which is designed for all travelers to Indonesia. The focus here is not only on effective communication, but also on simple grammar understanding, proper sentence construction, generating the right word for the right context, cultural exposure, and even tips to get the Indonesians to accept and embrace you better. It is organized to be easy, simple, concise, comprehensive and useful and yet not information dumping. Throughout the learning process, knowledge learnt will be accumulative, so you get to acquire the necessary skills to speak the language better and more effective with every chapter of learning. Every chapter has a good mix of theory and practical, and contain common phrases that can be used immediately. Learners can immediately start to speak and communicate with the locals without having to first complete learning the whole book. Learn Indonesian Language Phrase Book covers: 1.Hundreds of useful Indonesian words and phrases 2.200 most common words in Indonesian 3.100 most common verbs, adjectives and nouns 4.Arranged by topic and situation for easy use and reference 5.Grammar and pronunciation guide 6.Cultural exposure and tips to be easily accepted by locals 7.Complete guide to the affixation system with clear explanation 8.Make learning simple, easy and fun with selected video clips 9.Material is arranged in a step-by-step manner. 10.Books are compact (in size) but comprehensive (in information) 11.Instructions are easy to follow and understand 12.Books can be used for self-improving or in a class learning environment 13.Good mixture of theory and practical 14.With the learning system of Language Made Easy Series, learners will learn the most important part of the language in a systematical manner, so they can apply the knowledge almost immediately