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John J. Crocitti

For students, business people, government officials, artists, and tourists—in short, anyone traveling to or wishing to know more about contemporary Brazil—this is an essential resource. * 250 A–Z entries on contemporary government, the economic and business sectors, social movements, environmental issues, culture, and more * Dozens of photographs of geographic features, landmarks, architecture, the urban landscape, industrial and agricultural enterprises, and personalities from politics, entertainment, and sports * Cross-listings and indexes to guide readers to related topics

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Ana Paula Ambrosi,Silvia D. Zárate,Alex M. Saragoza

Providing over 200 entries on politics, government, economics, society, culture, and much more, this two-volume work brings modern Mexico to life. • Comprises information from approximately 100 contributors • Provides a timeline of events of modern Mexico from 1968 to the present day • Includes about 50 photographs that illustrate many aspects of contemporary Mexico • Provides a helpful bibliography and subject index

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Arnold P. Kaminsky,Roger D. Long Ph.D.

Containing almost 250 entries written by scholars from around the world, this two-volume resource provides current, accurate, and useful information on the politics, economics, society, and cultures of India since 1947. • 240 A–Z entries on the social, political, cultural, and economic development of India since 1947 • Contributions from more than 100 distinguished international scholars from five continents • A chronology of major domestic, regional, and world events in and involving India from 1947 to 2010 • A "Guide to Related Topics" to allow readers to trace main themes across related entries • An extensive Selected Bibliography containing multicultural and multidisciplinary materials and scholarship on the growth and development of the Republic of India from 1947 to the present

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Rigas Arvanitis

Science and Technology Policy theme is a component of Encyclopedia of Technology, Information, and Systems Management Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Science and technology policy covers all the public sector measures designed for the creation, funding, support, and mobilization of scientific and technological resources. The content of the Theme on Science and technology policy provides the essential aspects and a myriad of issues of great relevance to our world such as: Science and Technology Policy; International Dimensions of Science and Technology Policy; The Innovation System; The Policy Making Process in Science and Technology; Regional Perspectives: A New Scenario for Science and Technology Policies in the Developed and Developing World . These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs

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Joyce A. Quinn,Susan L. Woodward

This unusual encyclopedia brings together in-depth information on more than 450 natural geographic features from around the world and offers an array of creative tools to promote critical thinking and classroom discussion. • Provides a one-stop reference for students of geography and environmental and earth sciences • Offers global coverage of diverse features, whether terrestrial, aquatic, geological, ecological, or physiographic • Includes an overview of the various kinds of landforms of the world, how they are formed, and how they continue to change over time • Explains each feature's origins and significance, as well as major environmental issues in which it's involved • Indicates the importance of features to the development of Western science and contemporary scientific thought in fields such as evolutionary biology, paleontology, plate tectonics, and climate change • Features a "Top 10s Appendix" to provoke student interest through statistics such as the tallest mountains, largest lakes, and longest rivers

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Arthur Holmberg,Carlos Solorzano

The second volume of the World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre covers the Americas, from Canada to Argentina, including the United States. Entries on twenty-six countries are preceded by specialist introductions on Theatre in Post-Colonial Latin America, Theatres of North America, Puppet Theatre, Theatre for Young Audiences, Music Theatre and Dance Theatre. The essays follow the series format, allowing for cross-referring across subjects, both within the volume and between volumes. Each country entry is written by specialists in the particular country and the volume has its own teams of regional editors, overseen by the main editorial team based at the University of York in Canada headed by Don Rubin. Each entry covers all aspects of theatre genres, practitioners, writers, critics and styles, with bibliographies, over 200 black & white photographs and a substantial index. This is a unique volume in its own right; in conjunction with the other volumes in this series it forms a reference resource of unparalleled value.

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Wilhelm Barthlott,K. Eduard Linsenmair,Stefan Porembski

Biodiversity: Structure and Function is a component of Encyclopedia of Environmental and Ecological Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Biodiversity: Structure and Function discusses matters of great relevance to our world such as: Characterization of Biodiversity; Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning; Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Biodiversity Dynamics; Evolutionary and Genetic Aspects of Biodiversity; Biodiversity Monitoring, Assessment, Data Management, and Indicators; The Value of Biodiversity; Halting Biodiversity Loss: Fundamentals and Latest Trends of Conservation Science and Action; Application of Ecological Knowledge to Habitat Restoration. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

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Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Second Edition comprehensively reviews biology and abnormalities, also covering the most common diseases in humans, such as prostate and breast cancer, as well as normal developmental biology, including embryogenesis, gestation, birth and puberty. Each article provides a comprehensive overview of the selected topic to inform a broad spectrum of readers, from advanced undergraduate students, to research professionals. Chapters also explore the latest advances in cloning, stem cells, endocrinology, clinical reproductive medicine and genomics. As reproductive health is a fundamental component of an individual’s overall health status and a central determinant of quality of life, this book provides the most extensive and authoritative reference within the field. Provides a one-stop shop for information on reproduction that is not available elsewhere Includes extensive coverage of the full range of topics, from basic, to clinical considerations, including evolutionary advances in molecular, cellular, developmental and clinical sciences Includes multimedia and interactive teaching tools, such as downloadable PowerPoint slides, video content and interactive elements, such as the Virtual Microscope

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Marc H. Bornstein

Lifespan human development is the study of all aspects of biological, physical, cognitive, socioemotional, and contextual development from conception to the end of life. In more than 800 signed articles by experts from a wide diversity of fields, this volume explores all individual and situational factors related to human development across the lifespan. The Encyclopedia promises to be an authoritative, discipline-defining work for students and researchers seeking to become familiar with various theories and empirical findings about human development broadly construed. Some of the broad thematic areas will include: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Aging Behavioral and Developmental Disorders Cognitive Development Community and Culture Early and Middle Childhood Education through the Lifespan Genetics and Biology Gender and Sexuality Life Events Mental Health through the Lifespan Research Methods in Lifespan Development Speech and Language Across the Lifespan Theories and Models of Development. Featuring signed articles by experts from the fields of child development, psychology, neuroscience, behavior analysis, education, sociology, and more, this encyclopedia promises to be an authoritative, discipline-defining work for students and researchers seeking to become familiar with the various approaches to and theories of human development as well as past and current research.

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Barney Warf

The Internet needs no introduction, and its significance today can hardly be exaggerated. Today, more people are more connected technologically to one another than at any other time in human existence. For a large share of the world’s people, the Internet, text messaging, and various other forms of digital social media such as Facebook have become thoroughly woven into the routines and rhythms of daily life. The Internet has transformed how we seek information, communicate, entertain ourselves, find partners, and, increasingly, it shapes our notions of identity and community. The SAGE Encyclopedia of the Internet addresses the many related topics pertaining to cyberspace, email, the World Wide Web, and social media. Entries will range from popular topics such as Alibaba and YouTube to important current controversies such as Net neutrality and cyberterrorism. The goal of the encyclopedia is to provide the most comprehensive collection of authoritative entries on the Internet available, written in a style accessible to academic and non-academic audiences alike.

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Martin Abraham

Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies provides an authoritative assessment of the sustainable technologies that are currently available or in development. Sustainable technology includes the scientific understanding, development and application of a wide range of technologies and processes and their environmental implications. Systems and lifecycle analyses of energy systems, environmental management, agriculture, manufacturing and digital technologies provide a comprehensive method for understanding the full sustainability of processes. In addition, the development of clean processes through green chemistry and engineering techniques are also described. The book is the first multi-volume reference work to employ both Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Triple Bottom Line (TBL) approaches to assessing the wide range of technologies available and their impact upon the world. Both approaches are long established and widely recognized, playing a key role in the organizing principles of this valuable work. Provides readers with a one-stop guide to the most current research in the field Presents a grounding of the fundamentals of the field of sustainable technologies Written by international leaders in the field, offering comprehensive coverage of the field and a consistent, high-quality scientific standard Includes the Life Cycle Analysis and Triple Bottom Line approaches to help users understand and assess sustainable technologies

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The first edition of the successful Encyclopedia of Creativity served to establish the study of creativity is a field in itself. Now completely updated and revised in its second edition, coverage encompasses the definition of creativity, the development and expression of creativity across the lifespan, the environmental conditions that encourage or discourage creativity, creativity within specific disciplines like music, dance, film, art, literature, etc., the relationship of creativity and mental health, intelligence, and learning styles, and the process of being creative. This reference also appeals to a lay audience with articles specifically on the application of creativity to business settings. Available online via ScienceDirect and in limited print release. Named a 2012 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication Serves as a compendium of reviews of a number of domain-specific areas, such as acting, dance, expressive arts, film, food, music, religion, science, sports, theater, and writing. Creativity and education are examined in articles about thought processes, such as developmental trends in creative abilities and potentials, the enhancement of creativity, intelligence, knowledge, play, prodigies, programs and courses, talent and teaching creativity. Cognitive aspects of creativity can be investigated in articles about altered and transitional states, analogies, attention, cognitive style, divergent thinking, flow and optimal experience, metacognition, metaphors, problem-finding, problem-solving, and remote associates. Covers business and organizational creativity in articles about advertising with art, creative visuals, business/management, creativity coaching, creativity exercises, entrepreneurship, group dynamics, innovation, leadership, organizational culture, organizational development, teams, and training, among others. Explicitly examines the complex interrelationship between society and creativity in articles about awards, conformity and conventionality, the creative sector and class of society, cultural diversity, the dark side of creativity, East vs. West, networking, social psychology, war, zeitgeist, and others. Personal and interpersonal creativity is discussed in articles relating to collaboration, family, life stages, mentors, networking, personal creativity and self-actualization. Focuses on scientific information about creativity, there are also articles that discuss brain and neuropsychology, concepts of creativity, definitions of creativity, expertise, longitudinal studies, researching art, artists and art audiences, research methods, phenomenology research and qualitative research. Online version contains an additional 26 biographies of famously creative people

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Encyclopedia of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: ABC of Bioinformatics combines elements of computer science, information technology, mathematics, statistics and biotechnology, providing the methodology and in silico solutions to mine biological data and processes. The book covers Theory, Topics and Applications, with a special focus on Integrative –omics and Systems Biology. The theoretical, methodological underpinnings of BCB, including phylogeny are covered, as are more current areas of focus, such as translational bioinformatics, cheminformatics, and environmental informatics. Finally, Applications provide guidance for commonly asked questions. This major reference work spans basic and cutting-edge methodologies authored by leaders in the field, providing an invaluable resource for students, scientists, professionals in research institutes, and a broad swath of researchers in biotechnology and the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Brings together information from computer science, information technology, mathematics, statistics and biotechnology Written and reviewed by leading experts in the field, providing a unique and authoritative resource Focuses on the main theoretical and methodological concepts before expanding on specific topics and applications Includes interactive images, multimedia tools and crosslinking to further resources and databases

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Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences, Second Edition presents both foundational and applied information on plants used by humans as sources of food, raw materials, and amenity purposes. It highlights how the underlying science and information links through to applications in practical situations. Since the last edition was published, the role of applied science in agricultural production has been brought into greater focus as fluctuations in global food production feed through into prices and availability to consumers. At the same time, technological advances are changing the way plant science is done. This Second Edition has been expanded to include specific chapters on the leading crops and crop-types, as well as updated chapters on plant development, photosynthesis, metabolism, nutrition, reproduction, seed biology, plant pests and diseases, weed biology, and responses to environmental stresses. The updated chapters reflect progress, particularly in genome sequencing and molecular genetics and biotechnology, including genetic modification, that have taken place since the first edition was published. In addition, the book places these developments in the wider context of biodiversity, food security, intellectual property, and ethical considerations. Presents complete, up-to-date, authoritative information on over 25 separate areas of plant science, covering both theory and applications Edited and written by a distinguished international group of editors and contributors Provides concise, easy to read gateway entries to topics, each supplemented with a further reading list that allows practitioners, students, and researchers to delve deeper into each topic

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Charles Wankel

2009 RUSA Outstanding Business Reference Business in today's world is increasingly diverse. Undertaking commerce, even by an individual, can mean working globally through a welter of new media with opportunities of all kinds rapidly appearing. The boundaries, scope, content, structures, and processes of a business activity can morph into completely different ones in the course of a project. Contemporary businesses, and certainly future businesses, find it incumbent upon them to fit within the requirements of environmental and economic sustainability of the others who inhabit our world. With more than 1,000 entries, the Encyclopedia of Business in Today's World is packed with essential and up-to-date information on the state of business in our world. Not only does it reflect where business is, it also conveys the trajectory of business farther into the 21st century. These four volumes provide clear overviews of the important business topics of our time, ranging from culture shock to currency hedging, political risk, offshoring, and transnational corporations. The wealth of topics represent an integrated vision by the editor of a perplexity of functions, technologies, and environmental factors. Key Features Provides insight into the development and current business situation globally through articles on many individual countries Examines the processes, responsibilities, and ethics of business in the global market Offers entries written by experts from diverse fields Includes an appendix that looks at World Trade Organization statistics Presents a vast range of topics, including key companies, business policies, regions, countries, dimensions of globalization, economic factors, international agreements, financial instruments, accounting regulations and approaches, theories, legislation, management practices and approaches, and much more Key Themes Competitive Forces Countries Corporate Profiles Cultural Environments Economics of International Business Economic Theories of International Business Ethics, Corruption, and Social Responsibility Export/Import Strategies Foreign Direct Investment Globalization and Society Human Resource Management International Accounting International Finance International Monetary System International Trade Legal and Labor Issues Management and Leadership Manufacturing and Operations Marketing Political Environments Regional Economic Integration Supranational and National Organizations The Encyclopedia of Business in Today's World serves as a general, nontechnical resource for students, professors, and librarians seeking to understand the development of business as practiced in the United States and internationally.

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Dale Southerton

Request a FREE 30-day online trial to this title at www.sagepub.com/freetrial The three-volume Encyclopedia of Consumer Culture covers consuming societies around the world, from the Age of Enlightenment to the present, and shows how consumption has become intrinsic to the world's social, economic, political, and cultural landscapes. Offering an invaluable interdisciplinary approach, this reference work is a useful resource for researchers in sociology, political science, consumer science, global studies, comparative studies, business and management, human geography, economics, history, anthropology, and psychology. The first encyclopedia to outline the parameters of consumer culture, the Encyclopedia of Consumer Culture provides a critical, scholarly resource on consumption and consumerism over time. Some of the topics included are: Theories and concepts Socio-economic change (i.e. social mobility) Socio-demographic change (i.e. immigration, aging) Identity and social differentiation (i.e. social networks) Media (i.e. broadcast media) Style and taste (i.e. fashion, youth culture) Mass consumptions (i.e. retail culture) Ethical Consumption (i.e. social movements) Civil society (i.e. consumer advocacy) Environment (i.e. sustainability) Domestic consumption (i.e. childhood, supermarkets) Leisure (i.e. sport, tourism) Technology (i.e. planned obsolescence) Work (i.e. post industrial society) Production (i.e. post fordism, global economy) Markets (i.e. branding) Institutions (i.e. religion) Welfare (i.e. reform, distribution of resources) Urban life (i.e. suburbs)

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Helmut K. Anheier,Mark Juergensmeyer

"With all entries followed by cross-references and further reading lists, this current resource is ideal for high school and college students looking for connecting ideas and additional sources on them. The work brings together the many facets of global studies into a solid reference tool and will help those developing and articulating an ideological perspective." — Library Journal The Encyclopedia of Global Studies is the reference work for the emerging field of global studies. It covers both transnational topics and intellectual approaches to the study of global themes, including the globalization of economies and technologies; the diaspora of cultures and dispersion of peoples; the transnational aspects of social and political change; the global impact of environmental, technological, and health changes; and the organizations and issues related to global civil society. Key Themes: • Global civil society • Global communications, transportation, technology • Global conflict and security • Global culture, media • Global demographic change • Global economic issues • Global environmental and energy issues • Global governance and world order • Global health and nutrition • Global historical antecedents • Global justice and legal issues • Global religions, beliefs, ideologies • Global studies • Identities in global society Readership: Students and academics in the fields of politics and international relations, international business, geography and environmental studies, sociology and cultural studies, and health.

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Craig E. Carroll

What creates corporate reputations and how should organizations respond? Corporate reputation is a growing research field in disciplines as diverse as communication, management, marketing, industrial and organizational psychology, and sociology. As a formal area of academic study, it is relatively young with roots in the 1980s and the emergence of specialized reputation rankings for industries, products/services, and performance dimensions and for regions. Such rankings resulted in competition between organizations and the alignment of organizational activities to qualify and improve standings in the rankings. In addition, today’s changing stakeholder expectations, the growth of advocacy, demand for more disclosures and greater transparency, and globalized, mediatized environments create new challenges, pitfalls, and opportunities for organizations. Successfully engaging, dealing with, and working through reputational challenges requires an understanding of options and tools for organizational decision-making and stakeholder engagement. For the first time, the vast and important field of corporate reputation is explored in the format of an encyclopedic reference. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Corporate Reputation comprehensively overviews concepts and techniques for identifying, building, measuring, monitoring, evaluating, maintaining, valuing, living up to and/or changing corporate reputations. Key features include: 300 signed entries are organized in A-to-Z fashion in 2 volumes available in a choice of electronic or print formats Entries conclude with Cross-References and Further Readings to guide students to in-depth resources. Although organized A-to-Z, a thematic “Reader’s Guide” in the front matter groups related entries by broad areas A Chronology provides historical perspective on the development of corporate reputation as a discrete field of study. A Resource Guide in the back matter lists classic books, key journals, associations, websites, and selected degree programs of relevance to corporate reputation. A General Bibliography will be accompanied by visual maps noting the relationships between the various disciplines touching upon corporate reputation studies. The work concludes with a comprehensive Index, which—in the electronic version—combines with the Reader’s Guide and Cross-References to provide thorough search-and-browse capabilities

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Kylie Peppler

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Out-of-School Learning documents what the best research has revealed about out-of-school learning: what facilitates or hampers it; where it takes place most effectively; how we can encourage it to develop talents and strengthen communities; and why it matters. Key features include: Approximately 260 articles organized A-to-Z in 2 volumes available in a choice of electronic or print formats. Signed articles, specially commissioned for this work and authored by key figures in the field, conclude with Cross References and Further Readings to guide students to the next step in a research journey. Reader’s Guide groups related articles within broad, thematic areas to make it easy for readers to spot additional relevant articles at a glance. Detailed Index, the Reader’s Guide, and Cross References combine for search-and-browse in the electronic version. Resource Guide points to classic books, journals, and web sites, including those of key associations.

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Rodney P. Carlisle

CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title for 2009 "This ground-breaking resource is strongly recommended for all libraries and health and welfare institutional depots; essential for university collections, especially those catering to social studies programs." —Library Journal, STARRED Review Children and adults spend a great deal of time in activities we think of as "play," including games, sports, and hobbies. Without thinking about it very deeply, almost everyone would agree that such activities are fun, relaxing, and entertaining. However, play has many purposes that run much deeper than simple entertainment. For children, play has various functions such as competition, following rules, accepting defeat, choosing leaders, exercising leadership, practicing adult roles, and taking risks in order to reap rewards. For adults, many games and sports serve as harmless releases of feelings of aggression, competition, and intergroup hostility. The Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society explores the concept of play in history and modern society in the United States and internationally. Its scope encompasses leisure and recreational activities of children and adults throughout the ages, from dice games in the Roman Empire to video games today. With more than 450 entries, these two volumes do not include coverage of professional sports and sport teams but, instead, cover the hundreds of games played not to earn a living but as informal activity. All aspects of play—from learning to competition, mastery of nature, socialization, and cooperation—are included. Simply enough, this Encyclopedia explores play played for the fun of it! Key Features Available in both print and electronic formats Provides access to the fascinating literature that has explored questions of psychology, learning theory, game theory, and history in depth Considers the affects of play on child and adult development, particularly on health, creativity, and imagination Contains entries that describe both adult and childhood play and games in dozens of cultures around the world and throughout history Explores the sophisticated analyses of social thinkers such as Huizinga, Vygotsky, and Sutton-Smith, as well as the wide variety of games, toys, sports, and entertainments found around the world Presents cultures as diverse as the ancient Middle East, modern Russia, and China and in nations as far flung as India, Argentina, and France Key Themes Adult Games Board and Card Games Children's Games History of Play Outdoor Games and Amateur Sports Play and Education Play Around the World Psychology of Play Sociology of Play Toys and Business Video and Online Games For a subject we mostly consider light-hearted, play as a research topic has generated an extensive and sophisticated literature, exploring a range of penetrating questions. This two-volume set serves as a general, nontechnical resource for academics, researchers, and students alike. It is an essential addition to any academic library.

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Martha Craft-Rosenberg,Shelley-Rae Pehler

Request a FREE 30-day online trial to this title at www.sagepub.com/freetrial What is unique about the process in the discussion of healthcare and interventions to use when working with families? What assessment tools provide guidance for healthcare providers as they determine interventions for families in their care? What are the changing dimensions of contemporary family life, and what impact do those dimensions have on health promotion for families? How is family healthcare changing in terms of practices, delivery systems, costs and insurance coverage? Students are able to explore these questions and more in the Encyclopedia of Family Health. Approximately 350 signed articles written by experts from such varied fields as health and nursing, social and behavioral sciences, and policy provide authoritative, cross-disciplinary coverage. Entries examine theory, research and policy as they relate to family practice in a manner that is accessible and jargon-free. From 'Adolescent Suicide' and 'Alternative Therapies' to 'Visitation during Hospitalization' and 'Weight Problems and Genetics', this work provides coverage of a variety of issues within a family context. The Encyclopedia of Family Health provides a comprehensive summary of theory, research, practice, and policy on family health and wellness promotion for students and researchers.

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Jodi O\'Brien

2009 RUSA Outstanding Reference CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title for 2009 "Given both the interdisciplinarity of the field of gender scholarship and the immense significance of gender to both indviduals and societies, it is probably impossible to produce such a compendium. The editor, advisory team, and contributors are to be credited for tackling a project of such immense scope...O'Brien's commitment to the possibility of a more-informed discourse on the highly complex and nuanced topic of gender and society promises to benefit a broad readership...Highly recommended for academic libraries of all sizes and for large public libraries." —Booklist STARRED Review "All topics in this wide-ranging resource are addressed in an unbiased and unprejudiced manner, and facts are stated clearly and coherently. The coverage of changing topics is kept current. A valuable addition to any library." —Library Journal For decades,scholars of gender have been documenting and analyzing the various ways in which gender shapes individual lives,cultural beliefs and practices, and social and economic organization.Including contributions by experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Gender and Society covers the major theories, research, people, and issues in contemporary gender studies. This comprehensive, two-volume encyclopedia is distinguished by a cross-national/cross-cultural perspective that provides comparative analyses of the life experiences of men and women around the world. Key Features: · Provides users with a "gender lens" on society by focusing on significant gender scholarship within commonly recognized areas of social research · Offers "framing" essays that summarize commonly used concepts and directions of research and provide an overview of each area (e.g., Media and Gender Socialization; Religion, Gender Roles in; Sexuality and Reproduction; Women's Social Movements, History of) · Examines basic aspects of social life from the most individual (self and identity) to the most global (transnational economics and politics). · Contains new information on well-known subjects, including surprising facts that may counter common assumptions and research in areas of study where the impact of gender has been traditionally overlooked · Reflects cutting-edge discussion and scholarship on current issues and debates regarding gender and society

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Like the first edition, the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Stress covers nearly every conceivable aspect and ramification of stress including a wide range of related topics such as neuroimmune interactions, cytokines, enzymatic disorders, effects on the cardiovascular system, immunity and inflammation, and physical illnesses. Over the last decade, scientists have presented convincing research showing that psychological stress increases vulnerability to disease. They now understand more clearly that stress may be the thread tying together illnesses that were previously believed to be unrelated. Bone loss, increased abdominal fat, and damaged memory cells in the hippocampus have been linked to elevated cortisol levels. Building on the success of the first edition, this completely revised work surveys the vast amount of research generated in the past five years, resulting in a substantial revision with over 30% new material and over 100 new entries. Expanded sections include Animal Studies, Anxiety and Depression, Drugs, Depression, Disasters, and Psychological and Other Therapies. Also available online via ScienceDirect (2007) - featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com. * Timely update on the topic of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder taking into account events such as terrorism and middle east wars * Includes expanded coverage on anxiety and depression * Incorporates entries on the advances in our knowledge of immunology, cytokines and cell mediated immunity involved in stress responses and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Type I diabetes

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Mike Allen

Communication research is evolving and changing in a world of online journals, open-access, and new ways of obtaining data and conducting experiments via the Internet. Although there are generic encyclopedias describing basic social science research methodologies in general, until now there has been no comprehensive A-to-Z reference work exploring methods specific to communication and media studies. Our entries, authored by key figures in the field, focus on special considerations when applied specifically to communication research, accompanied by engaging examples from the literature of communication, journalism, and media studies. Entries cover every step of the research process, from the creative development of research topics and questions to literature reviews, selection of best methods (whether quantitative, qualitative, or mixed) for analyzing research results and publishing research findings, whether in traditional media or via new media outlets. In addition to expected entries covering the basics of theories and methods traditionally used in communication research, other entries discuss important trends influencing the future of that research, including contemporary practical issues students will face in communication professions, the influences of globalization on research, use of new recording technologies in fieldwork, and the challenges and opportunities related to studying online multi-media environments. Email, texting, cellphone video, and blogging are shown not only as topics of research but also as means of collecting and analyzing data. Still other entries delve into considerations of accountability, copyright, confidentiality, data ownership and security, privacy, and other aspects of conducting an ethical research program. Features: 652 signed entries are contained in an authoritative work spanning four volumes available in choice of electronic or print formats. Although organized A-to-Z, front matter includes a Reader’s Guide grouping entries thematically to help students interested in a specific aspect of communication research to more easily locate directly related entries. Back matter includes a Chronology of the development of the field of communication research; a Resource Guide to classic books, journals, and associations; a Glossary introducing the terminology of the field; and a detailed Index. Entries conclude with References/Further Readings and Cross-References to related entries to guide students further in their research journeys. The Index, Reader’s Guide themes, and Cross-References combine to provide robust search-and-browse in the e-version.

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Harry T. Reis,Susan Sprecher

Library Journal Best Reference 2009 "An excellent gateway to further examination of any of the subdisciplines of relationship science, or as a research tool in its own right." —Library Journal Relationships are fundamental to nearly all domains of human activity, from birth to death. When people participate in healthy, satisfying relationships, they live, work, and learn more effectively. When relationships are distressed or dysfunctional, people are less happy, less healthy, and less productive. Few aspects of human experience have as broad or as deep effects on our lives. The Encyclopedia of Human Relationships offers an interdisciplinary view of all types of human associations—friends, lovers, spouses, roommates, coworkers, teammates, parents and children, cousins, siblings, acquaintances, neighbors, business associates, and so forth. Although each of these connections is unique in some respect, they share a common core of principles and processes. These three volumes provide a state-of-the-art review of the extensive theories, concepts, and empirical findings about human relationships. Key Features Compiles leading-edge information about how people think, feel, and act toward each other Presents the best in the field—authors who have contributed significant scientific knowledge about personal relationships over the past several decades. Offers a diverse approach to relationship science with contributions from psychology, sociology, communication, family studies, anthropology, physiology, neuroscience, history, economics, and legal studies Key Themes: Cognitive Processes in Relationships Communication Processes Creating and Maintaining Closeness Dating, Courtship, and Marriage The Dark Side of Relationships Emotion Processes in Relationships Family Friendship and Caregiving in Adulthood Health and the Biology of Relationships Methods for Studying Relationships Personality and Individual Differences Prevention and Repair of Relationship Problems Psychological Processes Sexuality Social Context of Relationships Social Relations in Childhood and Adolescence Theoretical Approaches to Studying Relationships Types of Relationships Our relationships influence virtually all aspects of our everyday existence and are of deep interest to students, researchers, academics, and laypeople alike. This Encyclopedia is an invaluable addition to any academic or public library.

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Steven G. Rogelberg

The well-received first edition of the Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2007, 2 vols) established itself in the academic library market as a landmark reference that presents a thorough overview of this cross-disciplinary field for students, researchers, and professionals in the areas of psychology, business, management, and human resources. Nearly ten years later, SAGE presents a thorough revision that both updates current entries and expands the overall coverage, adding approximately 200 new articles, expanding from two volumes to four. Examining key themes and topics from within this dynamic and expanding field of psychology, this work offers a truly cross-cultural and global perspective.

download ebook international encyclopedia of ergonomics and human factors, second edition - 3 volume set pdf epub

Informa Healthcare,Waldemar Karwowski

The previous edition of the International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors made history as the first unified source of reliable information drawn from many realms of science and technology and created specifically with ergonomics professionals in mind. It was also a winner of the Best Reference Award 2002 from the Engineering Libraries Division, American Society of Engineering Education, USA, and the Outstanding Academic Title 2002 from Choice Magazine. Not content to rest on his laurels, human factors and ergonomics expert Professor Waldemar Karwowski has overhauled his standard-setting resource, incorporating coverage of tried and true methods, fundamental principles, and major paradigm shifts in philosophy, thought, and design. Demonstrating the truly interdisciplinary nature of this field, these changes make the second edition even more comprehensive, more informative, more, in a word, encyclopedic. Keeping the format popularized by the first edition, the new edition has been completely revised and updated. Divided into 13 sections and organized alphabetically within each section, the entries provide a clear and simple outline of the topics as well as precise and practical information. The book reviews applications, tools, and innovative concepts related to ergonomic research. Technical terms are defined (where possible) within entries as well as in a glossary. Students and professionals will find this format invaluable, whether they have ergonomics, engineering, computing, or psychology backgrounds. Experts and researchers will also find it an excellent source of information on areas beyond the range of their direct interests.

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Thomas M. Leonard

A RUSA 2007 Outstanding Reference Title The Encyclopedia of the Developing World is a comprehensive work on the historical and current status of developing countries. Containing more than 750 entries, the Encyclopedia encompasses primarily the years since 1945 and defines development broadly, addressing not only economics but also civil society and social progress. Entries cover the most important theories and measurements of development; relate historical events, movements, and concepts to development both internationally and regionally where applicable; examine the contributions of the most important persons and organizations; and detail the progress made within geographic regions and by individual countries.

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Bob D. Guenther,Duncan Steel

The Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, Second Edition, provides a wide-ranging overview of the field, comprising authoritative reference articles for undergraduate and postgraduate students and those researching outside their area of expertise. Topics covered include classical and quantum optics, lasers, optical fibers and optical fiber systems, optical materials and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Articles cover all subfields of optical physics and engineering, such as electro-optical design of modulators and detectors. This update contains contributions from international experts who discuss topics such as nano-photonics and plasmonics, optical interconnects, photonic crystals and 2D materials, such as graphene or holy fibers. Other topics of note include solar energy, high efficiency LED’s and their use in illumination, orbital angular momentum, quantum optics and information, metamaterials and transformation optics, high power fiber and UV fiber lasers, random lasers and bio-imaging. Addresses recent developments in the field and integrates concepts from fundamental physics with applications for manufacturing and engineering/design Provides a broad and interdisciplinary coverage of specialist areas Ensures that the material is appropriate for new researchers and those working in a new sub-field, as well as those in industry Thematically arranged and alphabetically indexed, with cross-references added to facilitate ease-of-use

download ebook encyclopedia of education economics and finance pdf epub

Dominic J. Brewer,Lawrence O. Picus

Economics can be a lens for understanding the behavior of schools, districts, states, and nations in meeting education needs of their populaces, as well as for understanding the individual decisions made by administrators, teachers, and students. Insights from economics help decision makers at the state level understand how to raise and distribute funds for public schools in an equitable manner for both schools and taxpayers. Economics also can assist researchers in analyzing effects of school spending and teacher compensation on student outcomes. And economics can provide important insights into public debates on issues such as whether to offer vouchers for subsidizing student attendance at private schools. This two-volume encyclopedia contains over 300 entries by experts in the field that cover these issues and more. Features: This work of 2 volumes (in both print and electronic formats) contains 300-350 signed entries by significant figures in the field. Entries conclude with cross-references and suggestions for further readings to guide students to in-depth resources. Although organized in A-to-Z fashion, a thematic “Reader’s Guide” in the front matter groups related entries by topic. Also in the front matter, a chronology provides students with historical perspective on the development of education economics and finance as a field of study The entire work concludes with a Resources appendix and a comprehensive Index. In the electronic version, the index, Reader's Guide, and cross references combine to provide effective search-and-browse capabilities.

download ebook encyclopedia of interpersonal violence pdf epub

Claire M. Renzetti,Jeffrey L. Edleson

"From assisted suicide and batter women to human trafficking and sex offenders, this guide provides an excellent overview of the state research on interpersonal violence. This set is highly recommended for academic libraries." —John R. M. Lawrence Interpersonal violence is behavior that intentionally threatens, attempts, or actually inflicts harm on another. This violence invades both the public and private spheres of our lives; many times in unexpected and frightening ways. Interpersonal violence is a problem that individuals could experience at any point during the life span—even before birth. Interpersonal violence is experienced not only throughout the life course but also as a global problem in the form of war, genocide, terrorism, and rape of women as a weapon of war. The Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence provides accurate, research-supported information to clarify critical issues and educate the public about different forms of interpersonal violence, their incidence and prevalence, theoretical explanations, public policy initiatives, and prevention and intervention strategies. These two volumes contain more than 500 accessible, jargon-fee entries written by experts and provide cross-references to related entries, as well as suggested readings for further information. Key Features Defines key concepts and explains theoretical principles clearly and succinctly Provides information on current data sets, regional and national organizations specializing in various dimensions of interpersonal violence, and relevant Web sites Serves as a quick reference guide to definitions, statistics, theories, policies, and prevention and intervention programs Discusses concern with interpersonal violence as a problem across the life span and across cultures Addresses careers in the many fields of interpersonal violence Key Themes Children and Youth Civil and Criminal Legal Systems Interpersonal Violence—General Intervention and Prevention Programs Legislation Organizations and Agencies Racial/Ethnic and Cross-Cultural Issues Research Methods and Data Collection Instruments Sexual Violence and Abuse Syndromes, Disorders, and Other Mental Health Issues Theories and Theoretical Perspectives Violence Between Intimates/Family Violence The Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence is designed for members of the general public who are interested in learning more about various aspects of the problem of interpersonal violence, making it a must-have resource for academic and public libraries.

download ebook encyclopedia of social problems pdf epub

Vincent N. Parrillo

Social problems affect everyone. Because so many actual and potential problems confront us, it is often difficult to decide which ones affect us most severely. Is it the threat of death or injury during a terrorist attack? Is it the threat caused by industrial pollution that may poison us or destroy our physical environment? Or does quiet but viciously damaging gender, age, class, racial, or ethnic discrimination have the most far-reaching effect? Do the problems of cities affect us if we live in the suburbs? Do poorer nations' problems with overpopulation affect our quality of life? The Encyclopedia of Social Problems offers an interdisciplinary perspective into many social issues that are a continuing concern in our lives, whether we confront them on a personal, local, regional, national, or global level. With more than 600 entries, these two volumes cover all of the major theories, approaches, and contemporary issues in social problems and also provide insight into how social conditions get defined as social problems, and the ways different people and organizations view and try to solve them. Key Features · Provides as comprehensive an approach as possible to this multifaceted field by using experts and scholars from 19 disciplines: anthropology, biology, business, chemistry, communications, criminal justice, demography, economics, education, environmental studies, geography, health, history, languages, political science, psychology, social work, sociology, and women's studies · Presents a truly international effort with contributors from 17 countries: Argentina, Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, New Zealand, Romania, Scotland, Turkey, and the United States · Addresses social problems that are fairly new, such as computer crimes and identity theft, and others that are centuries old, such as poverty and prostitution · Examines social problems differently from place to place and from one era to another · Explains the perspectives and foundations of various social theories and offers different lenses to view the same reality Key Themes · Aging and the Life Course · Community, Culture, and Change · Crime and Deviance · Economics and Work · Education · Family · Gender Inequality and Sexual Orientation · Health · Housing and Urbanization · Politics, Power, and War · Population and Environment · Poverty and Social Class · Race and Ethnic Relations · Social Movements · Social Theory · Substance Abuse Readers investigating virtually any social problem will find a rich treasure of information and insights in this reference work, making it a must-have resource for any academic library.

download ebook encyclopedia of diversity in education pdf epub

James A. Banks

The diversity education literature, both nationally and internationally, is broad and diffuse. Consequently, there needs to be a systematic and logical way to organize and present the state of research for students and professionals. American citizens need to understand the dynamics of their increasingly diverse communities and institutions and the global world in which we live, work, and lead. With continually evolving information on diversity policies, practices, and programs, it is important to have one place where students, scholars, teachers, and policymakers can examine and explore research, policy, and practice issues and find answers to important questions about how diversity in U.S. education—enriched with theories, research and practices in other nations—are explained and communicated, and how they affect institutional change at both the K-12 and postsecondary levels. With about 700 signed entries with cross-references and recommended readings, the Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education (4 volumes, in both print and electronic formats) will present research and statistics, case studies, and best practices, policies, and programs at pre- and postsecondary levels. Diversity is a worldwide phenomenon, and while most of the entries in the Encyclopedia will focus on the United States, diversity issues and developments in nations around the world, including the United States, are intricately connected. Consequently, to illuminate the many aspects of diversity, this volume will contain entries from different nations in the world in order to illuminate the myriad aspects of diversity. From A-to-Z, this Encyclopedia will cover the full spectrum of diversity issues, including race, class, gender, religion, language, exceptionality, and the global dimensions of diversity as they relate to education. This four-volume reference work will be the definitive reference for diversity issues in education in the United States and the world.

download ebook encyclopedia of sports medicine pdf epub

Lyle J. Micheli, M.D.

To request a free 30-day online trial to this product, visit www.sagepub.com/freetrial With an ever-growing variety of sports and exercise opportunities open to people of all ages, classes, and races, participation in casual sports has blossomed in recent decades, while interest in collegiate and professional sports has continued to soar. The field of sports medicine is thriving in response to the demand for health care professionals to care for people involved in vigorous exercise. Now more than ever, it is imperative that doctors, physical therapists, surgeons, nurses, and alternative medicine practitioners understand and are able to treat effectively the types of conditions stemming from all types of physical activity, ranging from pleasure walking to professional football. Presenting state-of-the-art research and evidence-based applications, this four-volume resource provides the most comprehensive and accessible information available on sports medicine. The Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine describes all aspects of the field with perspectives, concepts, and methods from the medical, behavioral, and social sciences and physical education. Key Features · Includes contributions from preeminent healthcare professionals who are renowned experts · Presents a broad spectrum of entries covering a variety of key topics, a glossary, and two appendices · Contains more than 550 tables and images, including anatomical drawings, X-rays, and MRI scans · Illustrates selected diagnostic and treatment techniques step-by-step with more than 200 photographs · Offers an in-depth examination of the various career opportunities in this area, including orthopedists, athletic trainers, sports psychologists, and nutritionists Key Themes · Conditioning and Training · Diagnosis and Treatment of Sports Injuries · Diet and Nutrition · Doping and Performance Enhancement · Exercise Physiology, Biomechanics, Kinesiology · Injuries and Disorders · Injury Prevention · Medical Conditions Affecting Sports Participation · Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy · Special Populations · Specialties and Occupations in Sports Medicine · Sports and Society · Sports and Sports Medicine · Sports Psychology · Sports-Specific Injuries · Women and Sports

download ebook a biographical encyclopedia of early modern englishwomen pdf epub

Carole Levin,Anna Riehl Bertolet,Jo Eldridge Carney

From the exemplary to the notorious to the obscure, this comprehensive and innovative encyclopedia showcases the worthy women of early modern England. Poets, princesses, or pirates, the women of power and agency found in these pages are indeed worth knowing, and this volume will introduce many female figures to even the most established scholars in early modern studies. Rather than using the conventional alphabetical format of the standard biographical encyclopedia, this volume is divided into categories of women. Since many women will fit in more than one category, each woman is placed in the category that best exemplifies her life, and is cross referenced in other appropriate sections. This structure makes the book an interesting read for seasoned scholars of early modern women, while students need not already be familiar with these subjects in order to benefit from the text. Another unusual feature of this reference work is that each entry begins with some incident from the woman’s life that is particularly exciting or significant. Some entries are very brief while others are extensive. Each includes a source listing. The book is well illustrated and liberally sprinkled with quotations of the time either by or about the women in the text.

download ebook wiley-blackwell encyclopedia of human evolution, 2 volume set pdf epub

Bernard Wood

This comprehensive A to Z encyclopedia provides extensive coverage of important scientific terms related to improving our understanding of how we evolved. Specifically, the 5,000 entries in this two-volume set cover evidence and methods used to investigate the relationships among the living great apes, evidence about what makes the behavior of modern humans distinctive, and evidence about the evolutionary history of that distinctiveness, as well as information about modern methods used to trace the recent evolutionary history of modern human populations. This text provides a resource for everyone studying the emergence of Homo sapiens. Visit the companion site www.woodhumanevolution.com to browse additional references and updates from this comprehensive encyclopedia.

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Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process

download ebook the nutrition transition pdf epub

This book deals with the dramatic changes in diet and lifestyle that are occurring in the developing world as a result of globalization, and their impact on human healt. The Editors have assembled a leading group of scientists in teh fields of economics, population sciences, international health, medicine, nutrition and food sciences, to address each of the key issues related to the changes in demographic trends, food production and marketing, and disease patterns in the developing world. The Nutrition Transition provides essential information to understand the far-reaching effects that global economic, social and cultural trends are having on diet-related disease patersin in countries of transition. Contains numerous illustrative figures and tables Two case studies included-on China and Brazil Foreword written by Nevin Scrimshaw, recipient of the World Food Prize