download ebook dirr\'s encyclopedia of trees and shrubs pdf epub

Michael Dirr

3500 photographs. Over 380 genera. More than 3700 species and cultivars. With Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs and Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates, Michael Dirr set the gold standard for horticultural reference. This season, Timber Press is proud to publish his seminal work, Dirr's Encyclopedia of Trees and Shrubs, the most comprehensive visual reference on this important subject. From majestic evergreens to delicate vines and flowering shrubs, Dirr features thousands of plants and all the essential details for identification, planting, and care, plus full-color photographs showing a tree's habit in winter, distinctive bark patterns, fall color, and more. In a class by itself for its quality of information, the best researched recommendations for hardiness in the industry, beautiful photography, and Dirr's own preeminence as a master plantsman, Dirr's Encyclopedia of Trees and Shrubs is a critical addition to any garden library.

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Tony Dove,Ginger Woolridge

A go-to guide for gardeners of all skill levels planting east of the Mississippi River Valley looking to add sustainable native flora to any horticultural project. Gleaned from the authors' 75 years of landscaping experience, this user-friendly reference offers suggestions on species selection based on a plant's performance, aesthetic appeal, and wide range of adaptability. Expert authors Tony Dove and Ginger Woolridge's valuable resource is organized for fast and confident tree and shrub selections for specific landscape applications, and is full of vivid four-color photographs, graphs, and practical tips. A sound and giftable volume for gardeners and landscapers from New England through the Carolinas, from the east coast to the Mississippi River, including Georgia and into northern Florida. "An important new tool to our native plant libraries. . . Beautifully illustrated, even the well-informed gardener will find this a valuable reference." —Doug Tallamy, author of Bringing Nature Home, co-author of The Living Landscape, and Chair and Professor of the department of entomology and wildlife ecology at the University of Delaware "Few books give such well-researched detail into where and how to utilize both common and sorely underutilized native trees and shrubs in the landscape. This book should be a required reference for nurserymen and landscape designers." —Mark Weathington, Director, JC Raulston Arboretum at NC State University "FINALLY! In a thoughtful, organized and simple format, this book illustrates how to build better landscapes, gardens, and environmentally sensitive ecologies. This is a long overdue book and it has my absolute endorsement." —Eric D. Groft, Principal/Vice President, Oehme van Sweden, Landscape Architecture “I was impressed with the comprehensive plant lists at the beginning of the book. Most gardening/landscape books place such lists in the back of the book and usually do not cover as many areas as yours does e.g. Trees with Showy Flowers, Trees for Planting Beneath Utility Lines, Wind Tolerant Trees, etc. I thought the addition of pictorial representations of height as well as seasons of interest was very useful, especially for those who are visual learners. I particularly appreciated the colored flower, fruit, and leaf color indications in the Seasons of Interest section – Great idea! The inclusion of the wildlife benefits of each tree or shrub is also a valuable tool for eco-friendly gardeners and landscapers. Essential Native Trees and Shrubs for the Eastern United States makes a great addition to the library of every serious gardener, landscape designer/architect, land manager and other plant-related professional.” —Margaret Shillingford, Education Programs Specialist, Mt. Cuba Center

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Charlotte Gill

• Winner of the BC National Award for Non-Fiction • Nominated for the Charles Taylor Prize for Literary Non-Fiction and the 2011 Hilary Weston Writer's Trust Award. During Charlotte Gill’s 20 years working as a tree planter she encountered hundreds of clear-cuts, each one a collision site between human civilization and the natural world, a complicated landscape presenting geographic evidence of our appetites. Charged with sowing the new forest in these clear-cuts, tree planters are a tribe caught between the stumps and the virgin timber, between environmentalists and loggers. In Eating Dirt, Gill offers up a slice of tree-planting life in all of its soggy, gritty exuberance while questioning the ability of conifer plantations to replace original forests, which evolved over millennia into intricate, complex ecosystems. Among other topics, she also touches on the boom-and-bust history of logging and the versatility of wood, from which we have devised countless creations as diverse as textiles and airplane parts. She also eloquently evokes the wonder of trees, our slowest-growing “renewable” resource and joyously celebrates the priceless value of forests and the ancient, ever-changing relationship between humans and trees.

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Lynsay Sands

“Lynsay Sands writes books that keep readers coming back for more.” —Katie MacAlister, USA Today bestselling author of A Girl’s Guide to Vampires Readers can’t get enough of Lynsay Sands’ delightfully devilish novels featuring the Argeneau vampire family, and with The Reluctant Vampire, Sands soars to new heights on silken bat wings. The story of a sexy Rogue Hunter forced to babysit a new immortal with a handsome, brooding, millennia-old vampire still devastated over the loss of a lover, The Reluctant Vampire offers heart, humor, and sizzling sensuality in equal measure—hallmarks of the incomparable Lynsay’s bestselling paranormal fiction.

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Grace-Marie Turner,James C. Capretta,Thomas P. Miller,Robert E. Moffit

Why ObamaCare is Wrong for America is the first in-depth examination of the impact of the new national health care law on American individuals, families, and businesses. Written by an esteemed quartet of experts and former health policy officials, Why ObamaCare is Wrong for America demystifies the convoluted plan that the Obama administration and a Democratic Congress pushed through, exploring its effect on real people. Eye-opening and important, it is a book that everyone in America should read—providing essential information on what’s in the new Health Care Law, how it will affect YOU, and what you can do about it.

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Tracy DiSabato-Aust

“This practical guide is lush with clear, step-by-step advice.” —Real Simple Since its original publication twenty years ago, The Well-Tended Perennial Garden has helped home gardeners successfully plan, plant, and tend their gardens. Now Tracy Di-Sabato-Aust’s trusty advice and reassuring tone are back and better than ever in this completely revised new edition. Novice and experienced gardeners alike will benefit from Tracy’s thorough details on the essential practices of perennial care—included deadheading, pinching, and thinning—along with growing information for new species and cultivars, on-trend garden design advice, a monthly planting and maintenance schedule, and details on native plants and gardening for wildlife. The Well-Tended Perennial Garden is a must-have ally in the quest for a beautiful, well-maintained garden.

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Rich Roll,Julie Piatt

A transformative family lifestyle guide on the power of plant-based eating—with 120 recipes—from world-renowned vegan ultra-distance athlete Rich Roll and his chef wife Julie Piatt Created by renowned vegan ultra-distance athlete and high-profile wellness advocate Rich Roll and his chef wife Julie Piatt, The Plantpower Way shares the joy and vibrant health they and their whole family have experienced living a plant-based lifestyle. Bursting with inspiration, practical guidance, and beautiful four-color photography, The Plantpower Way has more than 120 delicious, easy-to-prepare whole food recipes, including hearty breakfasts, lunches, and dinners, plus healthful and delicious smoothies and juices, and decadent desserts. But beyond the plate, at its core, The Plantpower Way is a plant-centric lifestyle primer that finally provides the modern family with a highly accessible roadmap to long-term wellness and vibrant body, mind, and spirit health. The Plantpower Way is better than a diet: It's a celebration of a delicious, simple, and sustainable lifestyle that will give families across the country a new perspective and path to living their best life. From the Hardcover edition.

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Sue Fliess

Grab your bucket and join the search for all the cool bugs outside! This fun rhyming story lists all the bugs you can imagine—creep bugs, climb bugs, sticky-slime bugs! Discover the vast world of insects in this photo-filled book.

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Rose McGowan

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “One of the greatest tricks that the patriarchy plays on women is to deliberately destabilize them, then use their instability as a reason to disbelieve them. Much of BRAVE reads like the diary of a woman driven half-mad by abusive men who assume no one will listen to her. In this case, the truth was finally—and, for McGowan, triumphantly—exposed...” —The New York Times Book Review "BRAVE works beautifully as a manifesto. It’s a call to arms—not just against the specific men who mistreated McGowan and the men and women who enabled that mistreatment, but against an industry."—The Boston Globe A revealing memoir and empowering manifesto – A voice for generations Rose McGowan was born in one cult and came of age in another, more visible cult: Hollywood. In a strange world where she was continually on display, stardom soon became a personal nightmare of constant exposure and sexualization. Rose escaped into the world of her mind, something she had done as a child, and into high-profile relationships. Every detail of her personal life became public, and the realities of an inherently sexist industry emerged with every script, role, public appearance, and magazine cover. The Hollywood machine packaged her as a sexualized bombshell, hijacking her image and identity and marketing them for profit. Hollywood expected Rose to be silent and cooperative and to stay the path. Instead, she rebelled and asserted her true identity and voice. She reemerged unscripted, courageous, victorious, angry, smart, fierce, unapologetic, controversial, and real as f*ck. BRAVE is her raw, honest, and poignant memoir/manifesto—a no-holds-barred, pull-no-punches account of the rise of a millennial icon, fearless activist, and unstoppable force for change who is determined to expose the truth about the entertainment industry, dismantle the concept of fame, shine a light on a multibillion-dollar business built on systemic misogyny, and empower people everywhere to wake up and be BRAVE. "My life, as you will read, has taken me from one cult to another. BRAVE is the story of how I fought my way out of these cults and reclaimed my life. I want to help you do the same." -Rose McGowan

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Ruth Rogers Clausen,Thomas Christopher

Essential Perennials focuses on what every gardener needs to know to choose from the thousands of perennials available, and care for the ones you already have. This A-to-Z guide is packed with more than 2,700 plants, with each entry listing flower color, bloom time, foliage characteristics, size, and light and temperature requirements. Each profile is supported by stunning color photography that showcases the flower and foliage that make each plant unique.

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Anthony Trewavas

This book provides a convincing argument for the view that whole cells and whole plants growing in competitive wild conditions show aspects of plant behaviour that can be accurately described as 'intelligent'. Trewavas argues that behaviour, like intelligence, must be assessed within the constraints of the anatomical and physiological framework of the organism in question. The fact that plants do not have centralized nervous systems for example, does not exclude intelligent behaviour. Outside the human dimension, culture is thought largely absent and fitness is the biological property of value. Thus, solving environmental problems that threaten to reduce fitness is another way of viewing intelligent behaviour and has a similar meaning to adaptively variable behaviour. The capacity to solve these problems might be considered to vary in different organisms, but variation does not mean absence. By extending these ideas into a book that allows a critical and amplified discussion, the author hopes to raise an awareness of the concept of purposive behaviour in plants.

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Ian Douglas

Center of Gravity is the second book in the explosive Star Carrier series by Ian Douglas—and a breathtaking new high in military sf, the strongest of the science fiction subgenres. Battlestar Galactica fans will adore this saga of ultimate war in deep space, as humankind risks its very future, battling a vast alien evil empire in order to achieve transcendence and become a major power in the universe. Douglas’s Center of Gravity belongs on every action-lover’s sf bookshelf—right between Joe Haldeman’s The Forever War and Heinlein’s Starship Troopers.

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Rich Roll

Finding Ultra is an incredible but true account of achieving one of the most awe-inspiring midlife physical transformations ever On the night before he was to turn forty, Rich Roll experienced a chilling glimpse of his future. Nearly fifty pounds overweight and unable to climb the stairs without stopping, he could see where his current sedentary life was taking him—and he woke up. Plunging into a new routine that prioritized a plant-based lifestyle and daily training, Rich morphed—in a matter of mere months—from out of shape, mid-life couch potato to endurance machine. Finding Ultra recounts Rich’s remarkable journey to the starting line of the elite Ultraman competition, which pits the world’s fittest humans in a 320-mile ordeal of swimming, biking, and running. And following that test, Rich conquered an even greater one: the EPIC5—five Ironman-distance triathlons, each on a different Hawaiian island, all completed in less than a week. In the years since Finding Ultra was published, Rich has become one of the world’s most recognized advocates of plant-based living. In this newly revised and updated edition, he shares the practices, tools, and techniques he uses for optimal performance, longevity, and wellness, including diet and nutrition protocols. Rich reflects on the steps he took to shift his mindset and leverage deep reservoirs of untapped potential to achieve success beyond his wildest imagination, urging each of us to embark on our own journey of self-discovery.

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Ernie O\'Byrne,Marietta O\'Byrne

“This is a love story about a couple and their relationship with an acre-and-a-half of land. . . with exceptional plant descriptions that read like character references for old friends. . . . beautiful photographs and prose await.” —Library Journal Marietta and Ernie O’Byrne’s garden—situated on one and a half acres in Eugene, Oregon—is filled with an incredible array of plants from around the world. By consciously leveraging the garden’s many microclimates, they have created a stunning patchwork of exuberant plants that is widely considered one of America’s most outstanding private gardens. In A Tapestry Garden, the O’Byrnes share their deep knowledge of plants and essential garden advice. Readers will discover the humble roots of the garden, explore the numerous habitats and the plants that make them shine, and find inspiration in photography that captures the garden’s astonishing beauty. There is something here for every type of gardener: a shade garden, perennial borders, a chaparral garden, a kitchen garden, and more. Profiles of the O’Byrne’s favorite plants—including hellebores, trilliums, arisaemas, and alpine plants—include comprehensive growing information and tips on pruning and care. A Tapestry Garden captures the spirit of a very special place.

download ebook reference sources for small and medium-sized libraries, eighth edition pdf epub

Jack O\'Gorman

Focusing on new reference sources published since 2008 and reference titles that have retained their relevance, this new edition brings O’Gorman’s complete and authoritative guide to the best reference sources for small and medium-sized academic and public libraries fully up to date. About 40 percent of the content is new to this edition. Containing sources selected and annotated by a team of public and academic librarians, the works included have been chosen for value and expertise in specific subject areas. Equally useful for both library patrons and staff, this resource Covers more than a dozen key subject areas, including General Reference; Philosophy, Religion, and Ethics; Psychology and Psychiatry; Social Sciences and Sociology; Business and Careers; Political Science and Law; Education; Words and Languages; Science and Technology; History; and Performing Arts Encompasses database products, CD-ROMs, websites, and other electronic resources in addition to print materials Includes thorough annotations for each source, with information on author/editor, publisher, cost, format, Dewey and LC classification numbers, and more Library patrons will find this an invaluable resource for current everyday topics. Librarians will appreciate it as both a reference and collection development tool, knowing it’s backed by ALA’s long tradition of excellence in reference selection.

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Geoffrey R. Dixon,David E. Aldous

This Trilogy explains “What is Horticulture?”. Volume three of Horticulture: Plants for People and Places presents readers with detailed accounts of the scientific and scholastic concepts which interact with the arts and humanities and which now underpins the rapidly evolving subject of Social Horticulture. This discipline transcends the barriers between science, medicine and the arts. This volume covers:- Horticulture and Society, Diet and Health, Psychological Health, Wildlife, Horticulture and Public Welfare, Education, Extension, Economics, Exports and Biosecurity, Scholarship and Art, Scholarship and Literature, Scholarship and History and the relationship between Horticulture and Gardening. This volume brings the evolution of the Discipline and Vocation of Horticulture firmly into the 21st Century. It covers new ground by providing a detailed analysis of the value of Horticulture as a force for enhancing society in the forms of social welfare, health and well-being, how knowledge is transferred within and between generations, and the place of Horticulture in the Arts and Humanities. Substantial emphasis is given to the relationships between health, well-being and plants by the internationally acclaimed authors who have contributed accounts of their work in this book.

download ebook garden history reference encyclopedia pdf epub

Tom Turner

The Garden History Reference Encyclopedia is in pdf format with over 10,000 hyperlinks both internal and external, to sites of garden history interest. The text is twice as long as the Bible and is fully searchable using the free Adobe Reader found on most computers. For full details of the contents please see GHRE page on Gardenvisit.com. The Enclycopedia was available as a CD from 2002 to 2012 and is now supplied as a pdf file. It received an American Society of Landscape Architects ASLA Merit Award in 2003 and a UK Landscape Institute award in 2004. Contents of the Garden History Reference Encyclopedia eTEXTS: The 100+ eTexts in the Encyclopedia are listed below BIOGRAPHY: there is an alphabetical index with links to biographies of famous designers, writers and patrons who have guided the course of garden design history GLOSSARY: there are explanations of garden history terms, with links to examples of their use in the eTexts STYLES: there are diagrams of 24 key garden types and styles TIMELINE: a combination of the 24 style diagrams with links to key persons and key examples General histories of garden design Garden History Guide. An overview of garden history from 2000 BC to 2000 AD (by Tom Turner). It introduces the subject and serves as a guide to the other resources in the Encyclopedia (approx 2,500 pages, 1.5m words and 2,000 illustrations). Tom Turner Garden Design in the British Isles: History and styles since 1650 (1986, 2000) The Encyclopedia edition has been revised, with additional illustrations and hyperlinks to garden descriptions. Marie-Luise Gothein History of garden art (English edition, 1928) Gothein's book, originally published in German (Geschichte der Gartenkunst, 1914 ), provides by far the best and by far the most comprehensive account of garden history from antiquity up to the start of the twentieth century. eTexts relating to Ancient Egypt Egyptian Book of the Dead (excerpts) Herodotus journeyed to Egypt and down the Nile in the 5th century BC and included valuable information on sanctuaries, gardens, groves and statues. A journey down the Nile in 1902, with romantic paintings of the people and the landscape A visit to the Estate of Amun in 1909, with paintings capturing the mood of the ancient monuments A journey down the Nile in 1914, with photographs of the monuments before they were restored and details of how the author's family hired a house boat and 'sailed away into a lotus land of sunshine and silent waters for five or six months' eTexts relating to Ancient West Asia The Song of Solomon from Old Testament of The Bible (also known as the Song of Songs). The greatest erotic love song in Western literature, making the association of gardens and love. It has been a profound influence on western thinking about gardens. 'The entire world, all of it, it not equal in worth to the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel.' Excerpts from The Bible relating to gardens. The Garden of Eden was thought to have been in West Asia. Excerpts from The Koran relating to gardens. Because gardens were so often used as a symbol of paradise, there are more references to gardens in The Koran than in The Bible. eTexts relating to Ancient Greece Plato's discussion of 'imitation' (mimesis) is explained and discussed. Book X of The Republic (c370 BC) is in the Encyclopedia . Plato's Theory of Forms led to the aesthetic principle that 'Art should Imitate Nature' which had a profound influence on western art in general and garden design in particular. Homer, excerpts from the Iliad and Odyssey relating to gardens Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough (1890). The chapter in the Encyclopedia describes 'The Ritual of Adonis'. It is written by the founder of modern anthropology and helps to explain the Adonis Cult, which provides evidence of plants being grown in Greek courtyard gardens, and of the spirit in which sacred groves were made in Ancient Greece. eTexts relating to The Roman Empire Vitruvius Pollio on landscape architecture and garden design (27 BC) from de Architectura. Vitruvius was a Roman and wrote the oldest western book on design to have survived. It lays down the principle that places should have 'commodity, firmness and delight'. Book 1, Chapters 1-7, are in the Encyclopedia . Excerpts from Ovid's Metamorphosis (1-8 AD) and Art of Love (1 BC). Ovid's poetry provided a rich source of imagery for garden designers and for the artists who made garden sculpture. Pliny the Younger's letters describing his own gardens (c100 AD). These letters are the best surviving descriptions of Roman gardens and of how their owners used them. Pliny owned many gardens and 500 slaves. Cicero, excerpts from his letters relating to gardens Virgil's Aenead, sections relating to gardens Life of St Martin The first outstanding monastic leader in France was St Martin of Tours (c316-397). His account of how he destroyed the sacred groves of the pagan religion does much to explain why Europe has such scanty remains of this type of outdoor space. Ibn Battuta's account of Constantinople c1300 eTexts relating to Medieval Gardens Charlemagne's 'chapter' (capitulary) on gardens gave detailed instructions for the plants to be used in the royal gardens and for the management of his lands. They are key texts for the study of medieval gardens, c800 AD. A note on 'Irminsul.' , the sacred tree of the Saxons, destroyed by the Christians. Guillaume de Lorris' Romance of the Rose or Roman de la Rose (c1250). This is an allegorical poem, inspired by Ovid, in which gardens and roses are associated with romantic love ('Full many a time I smote and struck the door and listened for someone to let me in') Excerpts from Boccaccio's Decameron (1353), with classical descriptions of medieval garden scenes. The tales are famed for their sexual intrigue and this aspect is more prominent than garden scenery in the illustrations in the Encyclopedia . Albertus Magnus advice on how to make a pleasure garden (1206) Walafried Strabbo's poem Hortulus. This is the literary classic of medieval garden literature, celebrating the delight of plants in monastic life and giving detailed information on the culture and uses of plants. The Life of St Anthony, relating to the origin of monastic gardening The Life of St Philbert, relating to the origin of the European monastic cloister. He was Abbot of Jumièges in France c750. A set of quotations from The Bible which make reference to gardens.(61 No) eTexts relating to Islamic Gardens A set of quotations from The Koran which make reference to gardens (151 No) The Spanish Ambassador's visit to Samarkand, in 1404, with his descriptions of Mughal gardens Babur's Memoir, Babur admired the gardens he had seen and, after founding a Mughal Empire, made gardens he made in India Persian gardens were in better condition in 1900 than in 2000, and better still in 1700. This gives a particular importance to past travellers descriptions of their use and form. There sections from the following accounts of visits to Persian gardens in the Encyclopedia (and engravings, to capture the flavour of Persian gardens as they were) Montesquieu's Persian letters (1721) contained little information on Pesian gardens but did much to awaken interest in seraglios and the 'romance of the East'. Washington Irving, the 'father of American literature' published a famous account of the Alhambra in 1832. He was a friend of Sir Walter Scott and has the same interest in welding history with imagination. This provides a glimpse of the Alhambra and Generalife when they were, beyond question, the finest gardens in Europe. eTexts relating to Renaissance Gardens Plotinus The Enneads Eighth Tractate: 'On the Intellectual Beauty'. Plotinus (205-270AD) was 'rediscovered' during the renaissance, in the Platonic Academy founded at Careggi, and came to have a profound influence on renaissance design methods St Augustine's conversion took place in a garden in Milan (described in his Confessions) and was often chosen as a frontispiece to editions of his work. Augustine is regarded as the greatest Christian thinker of antiquity, the transmitter of Plato and Aristotle to medieval and renaissance Christianity. Leon Battista Alberti On Garden Design (1485) from De re aedificatoria libri X (Ten Books on Architecture). Drawing from Pliny and Vitruvius, the humanist scholar set forth the principles for the design of renaissance villas. They were taken up by Donato Bramante and guided the course of garden design for two centuries. Vasari's biographical note on Leon Battista Alberti describes his multi-faced genius. Leonardo da Vinci note on the design of a water garden (from his Notebooks) with a reference to his interpretation of Vitruvius Andrea Palladio's I Quattro Libri dell'Architecttura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1570) is one of the most influential design works ever published. The quotations in the Encyclopedia relate to the placing of buildings and Neoplatonism. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne's diary accounts of Italian Gardens (1580-1) let us view many still-famous Italian gardens through the eyes of a French renaissance traveller and writer. Montaigne invented the 'essay form'. William Shakespeare's mention of gardens (30 No.) tell much of the gardens he knew. Despite his dates (1564-1616) these gardens are medieval, with only the slightest renaissance accent. Francis Bacon's Essay 'On Gardens' (1625). This famous essay, by a philosopher and scientist, in Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe's words 'magisterially lays down the fundamental principles of gardening'. It begins with the words 'God Almighty first planted a garden' and praises wildness in gardens. John Evelyn's diary accounts of gardens in France and Italy visited between 1644 and 1685. As with Montaigne's diary, they provide contemporary descriptions of French and Italian parks and gardens. Andrew Marvell's The Garden (c1650) celebrates the delights in the symbolism of seventeenth century enclosed gardens. Marvell's Upon Appleton House, to my Lord Fairfax contains some garden description. The Garden by Abraham Cowley 'I never had any other desire so strong, and so like to covetousness, as ....that I might be master at last of a small house and large garden Sir Thomas Browne's essay on The Garden of Cyrus deals with the history of gardens, as viewed from 1658 (an extract is in the Encyclopedia ) eTexts relating to Enlightenment Gardens René Descartes Descartes did not write either on aesthetics or on garden design, but historians continue to speak of the 'Cartesian Garden', by which they mean a geometrical garden. The Encyclopedia contains the text and a comment on his Discourse on the method of rightly conducting the reason, and seeking truth in the sciences.(1637) This short book laid the foundation for the philosophy of the Enlightenment and for Neoclassical aesthetics. John James Theory and Practice of Gardening was published in 1712, based on A J Dezallier d'Arganville and Le Blond. It became the standard book on laying out a French baroque garden and provides a fascinating insight into how this was done. James also 'introduced the concept of the ha-ha and anticipated Pope's famous dictum on the genius of the place'. The Encyclopedia has 3 chapters, 4 plates and a discussion of James' book. Alexander Pope's and his Essay on Criticism (1711) Epistle to Lord Burlington (1731). The former summarises contemporary attitudes to gardens and the latter summarises contemporary (rationalist-Neoclassical) aesthetic theory: based on Reason, Nature and the Genius of the Place. John Serle's plan of Alexander Pope's garden at the time of his death, and his description of Pope's grotto (+ photographs of the grotto and its setting) Sir Joshua Reynolds Discourses were delivered at the Royal Academy in London between 1769 and 1790 embody 'The basic ideas of neoclassical theory in the fine arts were set forth in definitive form, with clarity and grace'. The Encyclopedia contains relevant quotations. eTexts relating to Romantic Gardens William Temple's essay 'Upon the Gardens of Epicurus: or Of Gardening' (1685) is extravagantly praised by Nicholas Pevsner. He claims this essay 'started a line of thought and visual conceptions which were to dominate first England and then the World for two centuries.' The full text is in the Encyclopedia . Jospeh Addison's Essay 161 made the key association of natural scenery with liberty and freedom. Essay 37 describes a perfect garden in which reason and nature go hand in hand. Essay 414 sees the works of nature as more delightful than artificial arrangements. Essay 417 supports Locke's theory of knowledge. Essay 477 describes Addison's own garden at Bilton. William Shenstone A description of The Leasowes. This was one of the landscape gardens most admired in continental Europe, partly because it was the work of a poet and partly because it combined use and beauty - a ferme orneé. The full text of his publisher's description is in the Encyclopedia . William Shenstone 'Unconnected thoughts on gardening'. The invention of the term 'landskip gardening' is attributed to Shenstone. Edmund Burke An essay on the sublime and beautiful (1757). Taking an empiricist approach, Burke attacks Vitruvian and rationalist aesthetics. He also discusses garden design, praising Hogarth's 'line of beauty' (which Brown followed) and comparing 'smooth streams in the landscape' with ' in fine women smooth skins'. Quotations from Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, describing the principles on which he worked. Horace Walpole's essay 'On Gardening' (1780). The most brilliant and influential essay ever written on the development English park and garden design. Thomas Jefferson's descriptions of English gardens John Claudius Loudon's biography of Humphry Repton (1840). After Repton's own writings, this is the primary source of information on Humphry Repton's life and work. Jean-Jacques Rousseau one of the letters from La Nouvelle Héloise deal's with Julie's garden. It is a romantic treatment of an ancient theme, making the association between women, sex and gardens (see above references the Song of Solomon, the Romance of the Rose and Boccaccio. Also the reference below to Goethe). Uvedale Price On the Picturesque (1794) Excerpt from Chapter 1 and Chapter 4. Price was a widely respected authority on picturesque taste in gardens. Humphry Repton 'A letter to Mr Price' (1795) Humphry Repton Sketches and Hints (1795) This is Repton's first theoretical statement on his chosen professional (Introduction and Chapter 1 on Encyclopedia ) Humphry Repton Fragments on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1816) The Fragment reproduced (No 27) comes from the Red Book for Ashridge - a favourite project and the occasion for Repton's advocacy of what became the Mixed Style of garden design. eTexts relating to Nineteenth Century Gardens Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Elective Affinities (1809). Like Rousseau, Goethe admired 'natural' gardens. He also drew gardens and designed gardens. The section reproduced in the Encyclopedia deals with the design of a romantic garden. Jane Loudon's life of her husband John Claudius Loudon (1843). Jane was a novelist and her memoir is as touching as it is important as the key source of information on her husband - who was the most influential garden writer of the nineteenth century. Loudon's influence was particularly important in America. Edward Kemp How to lay out a garden (1864 edn). Excerpts giving his views on styles of garden design and describing two gardens which he designed. It presents a somewhat depressing picture of the confusion which reigned in the mid-nineteenth century garden aesthetics - and continues to reign in many of the world's municipal parks departments.. Sir Walter Scott, excerpt from Waverly and from The Quarterly Review on gardens. Scott's remarks can be read in conjunction with those of his friends, Gilbert Laing Meason and Washington Irving. They introduced a romantic-historical dimension to garden design and appreciation. Gustave Flaubert Bouvard and Pécuchet. Flaubert satirizes the bourgeois taste in garden design displayed by the characters whose names form the title of his last novel. Famous Parks and Gardens of the World - the book was published anonymously and provides a good illustration of European gardening opinion in 1880. The Preface and Chapter 10 are in the Encyclopedia . Ludwig II of Bavaria: the romantic gardens of the 'Mad King' were rich in historical associations. eTexts relating to the History of Landscape Architecture Guide to the History of Landscape Architecture, by Tom Turner Gilbert Laing Meason. The full text of Meason's On the Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy (London 1828). Meason was the 'inventor' of the term Landscape Architecture, which has since come to be used by a world-wide profession, represented by the International Federation of Landscape Architects, by the American Society of Landscape Architects, by the UK Landscape Institute and numerous other national associations. Only 150 copies of his book were printed and its contents are not well known. This is the first time the book has been re-published. It is accompanied with an analysis of the text by Tom Turner. A clear appreciation of how landscape architecture began is regarded as central to comprehension of the modern profession. Notes on the Top twenty theorists and designers in the history of landscape architecture and on the question What is landscape architecture? John Claudius Loudon's included comments on Meason in his Gardener's Magazine (1828) and in his Encyclopedia of Architecture (1833). These comments transmitted the term to Andew Jackson Downing and, later, to Frederick Law Olmsted - setting the course of American landscape architecture. Andrew Jackson Downing's Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. (Section 1, Section 2 and Section 9). Downing was 'the first American writer on landscape architectural topics' (Norman T Newton in Design on the Land) and an 'incalcuable' influence on American garden design and landscape architecture (Oxford Companion to Gardens). Loudon's writings were his starting point. Frederick Law Olmsted's description of his winning design for the Central Park, New York, competition (1858). Olmsted 'the father of American landscape architecture' entered the profession as a result of the Greensward Plan for Central Park, done in partnership with the English architect Calvert Vaux. Norman T Newton's account of the scope of landscape architecture, from Design on the land. Geoffrey Jellicoe's account of the scope of landscape design, from the Landscape of Man Ian McHarg: notes and links on the twentieth century's outstanding landscape planner. eTexts relating to Arts and Crafts Gardens William Morris' essay on Hopes and fears for art in which he criticises carpet bedding and makes the point that gardens should be works of art and of craft. Thomas Huxley's discussion of Evolution and ethics (1859), in which he views his own garden as a 'work of art' in contrast to the 'state of nature' which existed before it was made. William Robinson The Wild Garden (1881 edn Chapters 1-5, originally published by John Murray and reproduced with their permission). Robinson is described by Jekyll (in the reference below) as 'our great champion of hardy flowers'. He urged the use of hardy plants, instead of subtropical plants and carpet bedding, in garden design. He had a sharp dispute with Blomfield (below). John D Sedding Garden craft old and new (1891) introduced his book with a chapter on The Theory of the Garden. There are 2 chapters in the Encyclopedia . Reginald Blomfield's The Formal garden in England (1901 edn, originally published by MacMillan and reproduced with their permission). A contemporary review in The Times said 'Mr. Blomfield's historical sketch of the art of gardening in England is full of interest and instruction, and his polemic against the so-called landscape gardeners is vigorous, incisive, and to our mind convincing.' The book is undoubtedly polemical, but commendably scholarly. Blomfield was the son of a bishop and had a hatred of modernism. Gertrude Jekyll's account of garden design (from Wall water and woodland gardens, 1901, originally published by Country Life and reproduced with their permission). Jekyll was the most influential writer on planting design in the twentieth century. This chapter is the clearest statement of her views on the history and theory of garden design. eTexts relating to Design Methods Design methodology: an overview by Tom Turner Surface water drainage and management (from Landscape Design October 1985) arguing for 'privileging' water in the design procedure Wilderness and plenty: construction and deconstruction (from Urban Design Quarterly September 1992) arguing that the professional structure of the construction industry would benefit from deconstruction. 'Feminine' landscape design: a tale of two tragedies (from a Sheffield Spring School lecture, April 1993) arguing for the 'way of the hunter' to be balanced by the 'way of the nester' Postmodern landscapes (from Landscape Design May 1993) arguing for landscape and garden designers to take account of postmodern ideas and theories in their work Pattern analysis (from Landscape Design October 1991) arguing for a design method based on pattern analysis, instead of the modernist Survey-Analysis-Design (SAD) method taught in most of the world's landscape and garden design schools. Revolutions in the garden (from Tom Turner's City as landscape, Spons 1996). After looking at the design revolutions which have taken place in the 1690s, 1790s, and 1890s this essay finds the seeds of a fourth design revolution in the work of Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe, Charles Jencks, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. The flowers of garden design theory (from Garden Design Journal Autumn 1999, published as 'Timeless with delight') this article suggests a design method which integrates knowledge drawn from various fields, including the fine arts, philosophy, the natural and social sciences. PAKILDA: Pattern Assisted Knowledge Intensive Landscape Design Approach (from Landscape Design May 2001). Developing the method outlined in the Garden Design Journal, this article the recommends a design method for landscape design and planning. Design history and theory (from a lecture delivered at the University of Uppsala in April 2002) this article relates the PAKILDA method to the set of design objectives outlined by Vitruvius in the first century: utilitas (Commodity), firmitas (Firmness) and venustas (Delight). eTexts relating to Twentieth Century Gardens There are histories of American Garden Design in the Encyclopedia , written in 1834, 1928 and 2001. Geoffrey Jellicoe: a collection of information on his work, including an essay by Tom Turner on: Geoffrey Jellicoe, the subconscious and landscape design (1998) Garden Revolutions: an essay in which it is argued that 'structuralism can infuse gardens with post-Postmodern ideas and beliefs. It is a layered approach to garden making. '

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