Containing more than 450 entries, this easy-to-read encyclopedia provides concise information about the history of and recent trends in drug use and drug abuse in the United States—a societal problem with an estimated cost of $559 billion a year. • Contains more than 450 detailed entries on topics ranging from drugs themselves—such as alcohol, codeine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamines—to key individuals like Harry Anslinger to organizations such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) • Covers the latest developments in U.S. policies and public attitudes toward drugs and drug use • Provides citations with each entry to guide users to other valuable research resources • Features carefully selected primary documents—including excerpts from important laws, policies, and campaigns—that have shaped American drug policy over the decades
Thoroughly updated and greatly expanded from its original edition, this three-volume set is the go-to comprehensive resource on the legal, social, psychological, political, and public health aspects of guns in American life. • 450 alphabetically organized entries, including 100 new for this edition, covering key issues (suicide, video games and gun violence, firearm injury statistics) and events (workplace shootings, the Virginia Tech massacre) • 102 expert contributors from all academic fields involved in studying the causes and effects of gun violence • A chronology of pivotal moments and controversies in the history of firearm ownership and use in the United States • An exhaustive bibliography of print and online resources covering all aspects of the study of guns in the United States • Appendices on federal gun laws, state gun laws, and pro- and anti-gun-control organizations
Alphabetally arranged entries look at the controversies surrounding guns, gun control, and gun violence in the United States.
This three-volume Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement provides a comprehensive, critical, and descriptive examination of all facets of law enforcement on the state and local, federal and national, and international stages. This work is a unique reference source that provides readers with informed discussions on the practice and theory of policing in an historical and contemporary framework. The volumes treat subjects that are particular to the area of state and local, federal and national, and international policing. Many of the themes and issues of policing cut across disciplinary borders, however, and several entries provide comparative information that places the subject in context.
Alcohol consumption goes to the very roots of nearly all human societies. Different countries and regions have become associated with different sorts of alcohol, for instance, the “beer culture” of Germany, the “wine culture” of France, Japan and saki, Russia and vodka, the Caribbean and rum, or the “moonshine culture” of Appalachia. Wine is used in religious rituals, and toasts are used to seal business deals or to celebrate marriages and state dinners. However, our relation with alcohol is one of love/hate. We also regulate it and tax it, we pass laws about when and where it’s appropriate, we crack down severely on drunk driving, and the United States and other countries tried the failed “Noble Experiment” of Prohibition. While there are many encyclopedias on alcohol, nearly all approach it as a substance of abuse, taking a clinical, medical perspective (alcohol, alcoholism, and treatment). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Alcohol examines the history of alcohol worldwide and goes beyond the historical lens to examine alcohol as a cultural and social phenomenon, as well—both for good and for ill—from the earliest days of humankind.
A timely, new resource on the history of the U.S. government's approach to environmental policy. • 200 alphabetically organized entries on all aspects of the development of U.S. environmental policy—the events, issues, people, and politics • 100 expert contributors—scholars from a wide range of disciplines—draw on the latest research • A timeline of major laws, events, and governmental agencies related to environmental policy • A bibliography of important books and essays on U.S. government environmental policy in print and on online
Alcohol and drugs play a significant role in society, regardless of socioeconomic class. This encyclopedia looks at the history of all drugs in North America, including alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and even chocolate and caffeinated drinks.
Destined to become a modern classic in the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. 100,000 years ago, at least six species of human inhabited the earth. Today there is just one. Us. Homo Sapiens. How did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? Why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? How did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism? And what will our world be like in the millennia to come? In Sapiens, Dr. Yuval Noah Harari spans the whole of human history, from the very first humans to walk the earth to the radical -- and sometimes devastating -- breakthroughs of the Cognitive, Agricultural, and Scientific Revolutions. Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, palaeontology, and economics, he explores how the currents of history have shaped our human societies, the animals and plants around us, and even our personalities. Have we become happier as history has unfolded? Can we ever free our behaviour from the heritage of our ancestors? And what, if anything, can we do to influence the course of the centuries to come? Bold, wide-ranging and provocative, Sapiens challenges everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our power...and our future.
This third, supplemental volume continues the approach of the original two volumes of the Encyclopedia of Catholic Social Thought, Social Science, and Social Policy that were published in 2007. First, the volume includes entries that explore Catholic social thought at its broadest, most theoretical level. Second, the volume includes entries that discuss recent social science research that bears on issues important to Catholic social thought. Third, the volume includes entries discussing specific issues of social policy that have become increasingly important in recent years.
Does Ecstasy cause brain damage? Why is crack more addictive than cocaine? What questions regarding drugs are legal to ask in a job interview? When does marijuana possession carry a greater prison sentence than murder? Illegal Drugs is the first comprehensive reference to offer timely, pertinent information on every drug currently prohibited by law in the United States. It includes their histories, chemical properties and effects, medical uses and recreational abuses, and associated health problems, as well as addiction and treatment information. Additional survey chapters discuss general and historical information on illegal drug use, the effect of drugs on the brain, the war on drugs, drugs in the workplace, the economy and culture of illegal drugs, and information on thirty-three psychoactive drugs that are legal in the United States, from caffeine, alcohol and tobacco to betel nuts and kava kava.
The first edition of the Encyclopedia of Drugs and Alcohol (as it was first titled), published in 1995, was the product of a massive effort on the part of Jerome H. Jaffe and a group of distinguished colleagues that he, through his long experience and many friends in the various fields of addiction studies, was able to bring together. The result of the collaboration among the members of this original group was a compendium of information from every viewpoint and specialty having to do with the use and abuse of psychoactive substances. We, the editors of this third edition of the Encyclopedia, have attempted to remain true to Dr. Jaffe’s original purpose as described in the preface to the first edition. The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Drugs and Alcohol has been written as a comprehensive source of information for non-specialists who have an interest in any of the diverse topics that are included under the broad general heading of substance use and abuse. While many of the entries are devoted to the actions of drugs on the body, the work as a whole is intended to serve the wider interests of social science and includes articles on social policy, history, politics, economics, international trafficking, law enforcement, scientific and medical research, treatment and prevention of drug abuse, and epidemiology. The title of the second edition, published in 2001, was modified to include addictive behaviors that did not involve drugs or alcohol. While paying close attention to the original vision and the broader scope reflected in the title change, we have tried to update and expand the work to include new and emerging topics and important developments in the many fields of addiction studies. We have included information on recent scientific discoveries and theories in behavioral neuroscience, which help to illuminate how addictive substances and behaviors affect the brain and the impact of these effects on behavior. This new scientific information also includes a growing number of discoveries in genetics, which have emerged following the sequencing of the human genome. In addition, recent advances in neuroimaging have made it possible to examine events occurring in the healthy and addicted brains of animals and humans, further elucidating the underlying processes. The results of new, large-scale population studies inform much of the epidemiologic coverage of substance use, abuse, and dependence. We have gone to some lengths to reorganize the sections on treatment in as intuitive a way as possible and to include new developments in the use of medications, which increasingly are being combined with psychosocial interventions in the treatment of individuals with addictive disorders. Recognizing the cultural importance of how addiction is perceived both in the United States and in societies and political systems throughout the world, the editorial board obtained authoritative essays on such popular subjects as drugs in the movies, the effect of the Internet on drug use, and the coverage of addiction issues in the media. In order to give the reader a broad view of how these issues are understood and dealt with in cultures other than that of the United States, we commissioned articles on drug use and trafficking in a representative group of countries and regions. We have tried to maintain standards of objectivity in the treatment of controversial subjects and to provide enough information on competing theories and points of view so that readers may draw their own conclusions. One of the main challenges in compiling these volumes was to ensure that the language used by the contributors was not so technical as to make the entries obscure. In reviewing entries prior to publication, a concerted effort was made to use lay language whenever possible and, when technical terms were required, to define them. We, the editors in chief, are satisfied that the finished work provides an authoritative source of information that will help to educate the general public on a variety of complex and controversial issues. This third edition contains 545 entries, of which nearly 70 percent are either completely new (133 articles) or substantially revised and updated (236 articles). Early on, the editors decided, and Macmillan Reference personnel agreed, that the extensive list of treatment programs included in the fourth volume of the first two editions should be dropped. It was the board’s judgment that such a list would fall out of date so fast as to be of little use to the reader. In early 2006, Kate Hanley of Macmillan Reference invited Pam Korsmeyer and Henry Kranzler to consider sharing the task of editor in chief of a third edition of the Encyclopedia. Both were pleased and honored to accept the invitation. Ms. Korsmeyer had worked for many years as an editor and writer on the history of use, abuse, and control of psychoactive substances, and she was happy to be able to reengage the field after several years’ absence. Dr. Kranzler has been a clinician and investigator in addictions for more than twenty years and welcomed the opportunity to survey the biological and medical aspects of the field comprehensively, as required by a thorough revision of the Encyclopedia. At the beginning of the Encyclopedia project, the editors in chief and the Macmillan Reference project managers agreed that the work of constructing the table of contents, developing ‘‘scopes’’ for each article, and reviewing the finished essays should be divided among six fields of interest. A prominent scholar was then invited to take responsibility for each of the six fields, and the two editors in chief oversaw three fields apiece. Henry Kranzler worked with Deborah Hasin (epidemiology), Kathleen Carroll (treatment), and Michael Kuhar (neuroscience and pharmacology). Pam Korsmeyer guided the efforts of Nancy Campbell (history, society, and culture), Eric Wish (public policy), and Virginia Berridge (international issues). Howard Kushner also participated in the initial development of the table of contents, contributing first-rate work to the coverage of history, society, and culture. When he found that he was unable to remain on the editorial board, Nancy Campbell stepped in, much to the good fortune of the project and the editors. The substantial organizational effort could not have been possible without the contributions of the staff at Macmillan/Gale, who were ably led by Kate Hanley, Jeffrey Lehman, and Alan Hedblad. Their tireless dedication kept the editorial board and editors in chief focused on the task of identifying suitable authors for the many revised and new entries, providing direction in the preparation of initial draft entries, and thoroughly editing the entries to ensure their suitability for inclusion in the Encyclopedia. PAMELA KORSMEYER HENRY R. KRANZLER
In the United States, social class ranks with gender, race, and ethnicity in determining the values, activities, political behavior, and life chances of individuals. Most scholars agree on the importance of class, although they often disagree on what it is and how it impacts Americans. This A-Z encyclopedia, the first to focus on class in the United States, surveys the breadth of class strata throughout our history, for high school students to the general public. Class is illuminated in 525 essay entries on significant people, terms, theories, programs, institutions, eras, ethnic groups, places, and much more. This useful set is an authoritative, fascinating source for in-demand information on key aspects of our culture and society and helps researchers to narrow down a broad topic. Class is revealed from angles that often intersect: through history, with entries such as Founding Fathers, the Industrial Revolution, Westward Expansion; through economics, with entries such as Dot.com Bubble, Robber Barons, Chicago School of Economics, Lottery, Wage Slaves, Economic Equal Opportunity Act, Stock Market, Inheritance Taxes, Wal-Mart, Welfare; through social indicators such as Conspicuous Consumption, the Hamptons, WASP, Homelessness, Social Climbing; through politics with entries such as Anarchism, Braceros, Heritage Foundation, Communist Party, Kennedy Family; and through culture through entries such as Country Music, The Great Gatsby, Television, and Studs Terkel. Class is also approached from ethnic, sexual, religious, educational, and regional angles. Special features include an introduction, timeline, suggested reading per entry, cross-references, reader's guide to topics, and thorough index. Sample entries: Immigration, Education, Labor Movement, Pink-Collar Workers, AFL-CIO, Strikes, Great Depression, Jacob Riis, Literature, the Rockefellers, Slavery, Music, Academia, Family, Suburbia, McMansions, Taxation, Segregation, Racism, Ivy League, Robber Barons, Philanthropists, Socialites, Religion, Welfare, the American Dream, Dot.com Millionaires, Equal Opportunity, Founding Fathers, Wage Slaves, Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Economics, Appalachia, Horse Racing, Gender, Communist Party, Country Clubs, Religion, American Indians, Conspicuous Consumption, Studs Terkel, Film, Class-Consciousness, Work Ethic, Media, Television, Puritans, Homelessness, Status Symbols, Assimilation/Melting Pot, Art, Westward Expansion, Poverty, The Great Gatsby, Stock Market, Working Poor, Gated Communities, the Hamptons, Social Climbing, Crime, Lottery, Elitism, WASP, American Dream, Noam Chomsky, Fortune Magazine
This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date reference work on Asian Americans, comprising three volumes that address a broad range of topics on various Asian and Pacific Islander American groups from 1848 to the present day. • Presents information on Asian Americans and individual Asian ethnic groups that provides comprehensive overviews of the respective groups • Includes special topic entries that contain source information regarding major historical events • Comprises work from a truly outstanding list of contributors that include scholars, journalists, writers, community activists, graduate students, and other specialists • Expands the boundaries of Asian American studies through innovative entries that address transnationalism, gender and sexuality, and inter- and cross-disciplinarity
Focusing especially on American comic books and graphic novels from the 1930s to the present, this massive four-volume work provides a colorful yet authoritative source on the entire history of the comics medium. • Provides historical context within individual entries that allows readers to grasp the significance of that entry as it relates to the broader history and evolution of comics • Includes coverage of international material to frame the subsets of American and British comics within a global context • Presents information that will appeal and be of use to general readers of comics and supply coverage detailed enough to be of significant value to scholars and teachers working in the field of comics
The Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology encompasses applications of psychological knowledge and procedures in all areas of psychology. This compendium is a major source of information for professional practitioners, researchers in psychology, and for anyone interested in applied psychology. The topics included are, but are not limited to, aging (geropsychology), assessment, clinical, cognitive, community, counseling, educational, environmental, family, industrial/organizational, health, school, sports, and transportation psychology. The entries drawn from the above-referenced areas provide a clear definition of topic, a brief review of theoretical basis relevant to the topic, and emphasize major areas of application. Also available online via ScienceDirect - featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.
This book offers an analysis of every American presidential assassination and various attempted assassinations, examining the events surrounding each event and the people involved. • Includes 19 historic photographs regarding assassinations of American presidents • A bibliography of sources facilitates further research on specific subject matter
This up-to-date second-edition work will stimulate and clarify readers' thinking on the key issues surrounding guns in the United States—especially on the debate over gun control. • Provides a balanced view of the contemporary gun debate in the United States, explaining the positions of both gun rights proponents and advocates of stricter gun control without demonizing either • Draws on a vast array of research in criminology, history, law, medicine, politics, and social science to provide one of the most comprehensive single-source references on gun issues • Presents current and historical data on U.S. gun violence—including homicides, suicides, and accidental shoots—and places these numbers against international statistics on gun violence, thereby providing the context to enable readers to reach their own opinion on the gun debate
Which is more dangerous, a gun or a swimming pool? What do schoolteachers and sumo wrestlers have in common? Why do drug dealers still live with their moms? How much do parents really matter? How did the legalization of abortion affect the rate of violent crime? These may not sound like typical questions for an economist to ask. But Steven D. Levitt is not a typical economist. He is a much-heralded scholar who studies the riddles of everyday life—from cheating and crime to sports and child-rearing—and whose conclusions turn conventional wisdom on its head. Freakonomics is a groundbreaking collaboration between Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, an award-winning author and journalist. They usually begin with a mountain of data and a simple question. Some of these questions concern life-and-death issues; others have an admittedly freakish quality. Thus the new field of study contained in this book: Freakonomics. Through forceful storytelling and wry insight, Levitt and Dubner show that economics is, at root, the study of incentives—how people get what they want, or need, especially when other people want or need the same thing. In Freakonomics, they explore the hidden side of . . . well, everything. The inner workings of a crack gang. The truth about real-estate agents. The myths of campaign finance. The telltale marks of a cheating schoolteacher. The secrets of the Ku Klux Klan. What unites all these stories is a belief that the modern world, despite a great deal of complexity and downright deceit, is not impenetrable, is not unknowable, and—if the right questions are asked—is even more intriguing than we think. All it takes is a new way of looking. Freakonomics establishes this unconventional premise: If morality represents how we would like the world to work, then economics represents how it actually does work. It is true that readers of this book will be armed with enough riddles and stories to last a thousand cocktail parties. But Freakonomics can provide more than that. It will literally redefine the way we view the modern world. Bonus material added to the revised and expanded 2006 edition The original New York Times Magazine article about Steven D. Levitt by Stephen J. Dubner, which led to the creation of this book. Seven “Freakonomics” columns written for the New York Times Magazine, published between August 2005 and April 2006. Selected entries from the Freakonomics blog, posted between April 2005 and May 2006 at http://www.freakonomics.com/blog/.
This historical reference highlights the people, diseases, and innovations that have impacted the health of soldiers and civilians during wartime, focusing on U.S. conflicts from early colonial skirmishes to the current War on Terror. • Features primary source documents, including doctors' reports, eyewitness accounts, patient information, and statistics that help bring history to life • Offers a detailed, cross-disciplinary examination covering historical topics of interest in military, medicine, and health and wellness • Introduces each conflict through a helpful overview essay • Encourages a natural progression of understanding by organizing the text by conflict
International Encyclopedia of Public Health, Second Edition is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to the major issues, challenges, methods, and approaches of global public health. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, this new edition combines complementary scientific fields of inquiry, linking biomedical research with the social and life sciences to address the three major themes of public health research, disease, health processes, and disciplines. This book helps readers solve real-world problems in global and local health through a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. Covering all dimensions of the field, from the details of specific diseases, to the organization of social insurance agencies, the articles included cover the fundamental research areas of health promotion, economics, and epidemiology, as well as specific diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and reproductive health. Additional articles on the history of public health, global issues, research priorities, and health and human rights make this work an indispensable resource for students, health researchers, and practitioners alike. Provides the most comprehensive, high-level, internationally focused reference work available on public health Presents an invaluable resource for both researchers familiar with the field and non-experts requiring easy-to-find, relevant, global information and a greater understanding of the wider issues Contains interdisciplinary coverage across all aspects of public health Incorporates biomedical and health social science issues and perspectives Includes an international focus with contributions from global domain experts, providing a complete picture of public health issues
Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volumes 1-4, Second Edition is a pioneering four volume encyclopedia compiled by an international team of forensic specialists who explore the relationship between law, medicine, and science in the study of forensics. This important work includes over three hundred state-of-the-art chapters, with articles covering crime-solving techniques such as autopsies, ballistics, fingerprinting, hair and fiber analysis, and the sophisticated procedures associated with terrorism investigations, forensic chemistry, DNA, and immunoassays. Available online, and in four printed volumes, the encyclopedia is an essential reference for any practitioner in a forensic, medical, healthcare, legal, judicial, or investigative field looking for easily accessible and authoritative overviews on a wide range of topics. Chapters have been arranged in alphabetical order, and are written in a clear-and-concise manner, with definitions provided in the case of obscure terms and information supplemented with pictures, tables, and diagrams. Each topic includes cross-referencing to related articles and case studies where further explanation is required, along with references to external sources for further reading. Brings together all appropriate aspects of forensic medicine and legal medicine Contains color figures, sample forms, and other materials that the reader can adapt for their own practice Also available in an on-line version which provides numerous additional reference and research tools, additional multimedia, and powerful search functions Each topic includes cross-referencing to related articles and case studies where further explanation is required, along with references to external sources for further reading
One of the true classics of American literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has stirred the imagination of young and old alike for over four generations. This is probably one of the most beautiful digital version ever made of this story, containing over 100 gorgeous illustrations. The story chronicles the adventures of a girl named Dorothy Gale in the Land of Oz. As Baum says in the introduction "It aspires to being a modernized fairy tale, in which the wonderment and joy are retained and the heartaches and nightmares are left out." And it succeeds wonderfully. It is one of the best-known stories in American popular culture and has been widely translated.
This in-depth examination of the life, history, and influence of Muhammad as discussed by leading scholars provides a wide-ranging look at the prophet's legacy unlike any other in the field of Islamic and culture studies. • Documents Muhammad's broad impact on history, culture, and society • Shares viewpoints from more than 100 scholars in the field of Islamic studies to provide different perspectives on how Muhammad's life and beliefs have changed the course of history • Explores Muhammad's changing image—and controversies over his depiction and the communication of his ideas—in art, music, and literature • Provides an in-depth overview of Muhammad's influences on secular life and culture
Firsthand sources are brought together to illuminate the diversity of American history in a unique way—by sharing the perspectives of people of color who participated in landmark events. • Highlights the history and experience of people of color in the United States through 450 important documents and firsthand accounts • Introduces readers to multiple viewpoints about landmark events • Provides a unique and helpful "Guide to Why and How to Use Primary Documents"
Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association
This book presents evidence that drug policies impose high costs on poor transit and producer countries. It argues that, in the face of great uncertainty about the benefits of alternative drug policies, those with lower social costs should receive greater emphasis.
More than any other field in education, the social and cultural foundations of education reflect many of the conflicts, tensions, and forces in American society. This is hardly surprising, since the area focuses on issues such as race, gender, socioeconomic class, the impact of technology on learning, what it means to be educated, and the role of teaching and learning in a societal context. The Encyclopedia of the Social and Cultural Foundations of Education provides a comprehensive introduction to the social and cultural foundations of education. With more than 400 entries, the three volumes of this indispensable resource offer a thorough and interdisciplinary view of the field for all those interested in issues involving schools and society. Key Features · Provides an interdisciplinary perspective from areas such as comparative education, educational anthropology, educational sociology, the history of education, and the philosophy of education · Presents essays on major movements in the field, including the Free School and Visual Instruction movements · Includes more than 130 biographical entries on important men and women in education · Offers interpretations of legal material including Brown v. Board of Education(1954) and the GI Bill of Rights · Explores theoretical debates fundamental to the field such as religion in the public school curriculum, rights of students and teachers, surveillance in schools, tracking and detracking, and many more · Contains a visual history of American education with nearly 350 images and an accompanying narrative Key Themes · Arts, Media, and Technology · Curriculum · Economic Issues · Equality and Social Stratification · Evaluation, Testing, and Research Methods · History of Education · Law and Public Policy · Literacy · Multiculturalism and Special Populations · Organizations, Schools, and Institutions · Religion and Social Values · School Governance · Sexuality and Gender · Teachers · Theories, Models, and Philosophical Perspectives · A Visual History of American Education
This groundbreaking volume showcases the exciting work emerging from the ethnography of media, a burgeoning new area in anthropology that expands both social theory and ethnographic fieldwork to examine the way media—film, television, video—are used in societies around the globe, often in places that have been off the map of conventional media studies. The contributors, key figures in this new field, cover topics ranging from indigenous media projects around the world to the unexpected effects of state control of media to the local impact of film and television as they travel transnationally. Their essays, mostly new work produced for this volume, bring provocative new theoretical perspectives grounded in cross-cultural ethnographic realities to the study of media.
When After Virtue first appeared in 1981, it was recognized as a significant and potentially controversial critique of contemporary moral philosophy. Newsweek called it “a stunning new study of ethics by one of the foremost moral philosophers in the English-speaking world.” Since that time, the book has been translated into more than fifteen foreign languages and has sold over one hundred thousand copies. Now, twenty-five years later, the University of Notre Dame Press is pleased to release the third edition of After Virtue, which includes a new prologue “After Virtue after a Quarter of a Century.” In this classic work, Alasdair MacIntyre examines the historical and conceptual roots of the idea of virtue, diagnoses the reasons for its absence in personal and public life, and offers a tentative proposal for its recovery. While the individual chapters are wide-ranging, once pieced together they comprise a penetrating and focused argument about the price of modernity. In the Third Edition prologue, MacIntyre revisits the central theses of the book and concludes that although he has learned a great deal and has supplemented and refined his theses and arguments in other works, he has “as yet found no reason for abandoning the major contentions” of this book. While he recognizes that his conception of human beings as virtuous or vicious needed not only a metaphysical but also a biological grounding, ultimately he remains “committed to the thesis that it is only from the standpoint of a very different tradition, one whose beliefs and presuppositions were articulated in their classical form by Aristotle, that we can understand both the genesis and the predicament of moral modernity.”
Global Security and International Political Economy is a component of Encyclopedia of Social Sciences and Humanities in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. This 6-volume set contains several chapters, each of size 5000-30000 words, with perspectives, issues of great relevance to our world such as: Global Security; Global Security and the International System; The Regional Dimension of Global Security; The National Dimension Of Global Security; The Societal Dimension Of Global Security; The Human Security Agenda In World Politics; History Of Empires And Conflicts; The Myth Of The Clash Of Civilizations In Dialogical-Historical Context; Causes And Prevention Of Armed Conflict; International Development Policies And Global Security; Environment And Global Security; Political Economy Of International Security; Political Issues In Human Resource Development; Globalization And The Consumer Society. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.
Federal, state, county, and municipal police forces all have their own codes of conduct, yet the ethics of being a police officer remain perplexing and are often difficult to apply in dynamic situations. The police misconduct statistics are staggering and indicate that excessive use of force comprises almost a quarter of misconduct cases, with sexual harassment, fraud/theft, and false arrest being the next most prevalent factors. The ethical issues and dilemmas in criminal justice also reach deep into the legal professions, the structure and administration of justice in society, and the personal characteristics of those in the criminal justice professions. The Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics includes A to Z entries by experts in the field that explore the scope of ethical decision making and behaviors within the spheres of criminal justice systems, including policing, corrections, courts, forensic science, and policy analysis and research. This two-volume set is available in both print and electronic formats. Features: Entries are authored and signed by experts in the field and conclude with references and further readings, as well as cross references to related entries that guide readers to the next steps in their research journeys. A Reader's Guide groups related entries by broad topic areas and themes, making it easy for readers to quickly identify related entries. A Chronology highlights the development of the field and places material into historical context; a Glossary defines key terms from the fields of law and ethics; and a Resource Guide provides lists of classic books, academic journals, websites and associations focused on criminal justice ethics. Reports and statistics from such sources as the FBI, the United Nations, and the International Criminal Court are included in an appendix. In the electronic version, the Reader's Guide, index, and cross references combine to provide effective search-and-browse capabilities. The Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics provides a general, non-technical yet comprehensive resource for students who wish to understand the complexities of criminal justice ethics.
This issues-based reference work (available in both print and electronic formats) shines a spotlight on immigration policy in the United States. The U.S. is a nation of immigrants. Yet while the lofty words enshrined with the Statue of Liberty stand as a source of national pride, the rhetoric and politics surrounding immigration policy all-too-often have proven far less lofty. In reality, the apparently open invitation of Lady Liberty seldom has been without restriction. Throughout our history, impassioned debates about the appropriate scope and nature of such restriction have emerged and mushroomed, among politicians, among scholars of public policy, among the general public. In light of the need to keep students, researchers, and other interested readers informed and up-to-date on status of U.S. immigration policy, this volume uses introductory essays followed by point/counterpoint articles to explore prominent and perennially important debates, providing readers with views on multiple sides of this complex issue. While there are some brief works looking at debates on immigration, as well as some general A-to-Z encyclopedias, we offer more in-depth coverage of a much wider range of themes and issues, thus providing the only fully comprehensive point/counterpoint handbook tackling the issues that political science, history, and sociology majors are asked to explore and to write about as students and that they will grapple with later as policy makers and citizens. Features & Benefits: The volume is divided into three sections, each with its own Section Editor: Labor & Economic Debates (Judith Gans), Social & Cultural Debates (Judith Gans), and Political & Legal Debates (Daniel Tichenor). Sections open with a Preface by the Section Editor to introduce the broad theme at hand and provide historical underpinnings. Each section holds 12 chapters addressing varied aspects of the broad theme of the section. Chapters open with an objective, lead-in piece (or "headnote") followed by a point article and a counterpoint article. All pieces (headnote, point article, counterpoint article) are signed. For each chapter, students are referred to further readings, data sources, and other resources as a jumping-off spot for further research and more in-depth exploration. Finally, volume concludes with a comprehensive index, and the electronic version includes search-and-browse features, as well as the ability to link to further readings cited within chapters should they be available to the library in electronic format.