download ebook justice as fairness pdf epub

John Rawls,Erin Kelly

This book originated as lectures for a course on political philosophy that Rawls taught regularly at Harvard in the 1980s. In time the lectures became a restatement of his theory of justice as fairness, revised in light of his more recent papers and his treatise Political Liberalism (1993). As Rawls writes in the preface, the restatement presents "in one place an account of justice as fairness as I now see it, drawing on all [my previous] works." He offers a broad overview of his main lines of thought and also explores specific issues never before addressed in any of his writings. Rawls is well aware that since the publication of A Theory of Justice in 1971, American society has moved farther away from the idea of justice as fairness. Yet his ideas retain their power and relevance to debates in a pluralistic society about the meaning and theoretical viability of liberalism. This book demonstrates that moral clarity can be achieved even when a collective commitment to justice is uncertain.

download ebook justice and fairness in the city pdf epub

Simin Davoudi,Derek Bell

With more than half the world’s population now living in urban areas, ‘fairness’ and ‘justice’ within the city are key concepts in contemporary political debate. This book examines the theory and practice of justice in and of the city through a multidisciplinary collaboration, which draws on a wide range of expertise. By bringing diverse disciplinary and theoretical perspectives into conversation with each other to explore the (in) justices in urban environment, education, mobility and participation the book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of justice and fairness in and of the city. It will be a valuable resource for academic researchers and students across a range of disciplines including urban and environmental studies, geography, planning, education, ethics and politics.

download ebook justice and fairness in the city pdf epub

Simin Davoudi,Derek Bell

With more than half the world’s population now living in urban areas, ‘fairness’ and ‘justice’ within the city are key concepts in contemporary political debate. This book examines the theory and practice of justice in and of the city through a multidisciplinary collaboration, which draws on a wide range of expertise. By bringing diverse disciplinary and theoretical perspectives into conversation with each other to explore the (in) justices in urban environment, education, mobility and participation the book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of justice and fairness in and of the city. It will be a valuable resource for academic researchers and students across a range of disciplines including urban and environmental studies, geography, planning, education, ethics and politics.

download ebook justice and fairness in the city pdf epub

Simin Davoudi

With more than half the world’s population now living in urban areas, ‘fairness’ and ‘justice’ within the city are key concepts in contemporary political debate. This book examines the theory and practice of justice in and of the city through a multi-disciplinary collaboration, which draws on a wide range of expertise. By bringing diverse disciplinary and theoretical perspectives into conversation with each other to explore the (in) justices in urban environment, education, mobility and participation the book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of justice and fairness in and of the city. It will be a valuable resource for academic researchers and students across a range of disciplines including urban and environmental studies, geography, planning, education, ethics and politics.

download ebook john rawls’ theory of justice. justice as fairness pdf epub

Melissa Grönebaum

Essay from the year 2013 in the subject Philosophy - Philosophy of the Present, grade: 2,7, National University of Ireland, Galway, language: English, abstract: The Theory of Justice is one of the most important works concerning moral and political philosophy of the 20th century. In his work, John Rawls presents a widely persuasive Theory of Justice and elaborates his idea of ‘justice as fairness’. Outgoing from the original position, thus defining a veil of ignorance, Rawls assumes that people would choose fundamental principles which are only for the benefit of everyone and offer no advantages for any special social groups. Rawls expects people in the original position to choose two specific principles of justice on which to found their political association. In this essay I will present these principles and Rawls’ justification for their choice. Furthermore, I will assess his success and will argue for ‘justice as fairness’ being one of the fairest theories on the one hand, but unfortunately on the other hand likewise hard to realize.

download ebook understanding rawls: justice as fairness pdf epub

Hercules Bantas

This concise, essay length guide explains Rawls's concept of 'justice as fairness'. It covers such topics as the two principles of justice, the principle of fairness, and the difference principle, as well as examining some of the criticisms leveled at his arguments.

download ebook fairness and justice in natural resource politics pdf epub

Melanie Pichler,Cornelia Staritz,Karin Küblböck,Christina Plank,Werner Raza,Fernando Ruiz Peyré

As demand for natural resources increases due to the rise in world population and living standards, conflicts over their access and control are becoming more prevalent. This book critically assesses different approaches to and conceptualizations of resource fairness and justice and applies them to the analysis of resource conflicts. Approaches addressed include cosmopolitan liberalism, political economy and political ecology. These are applied at various scales (local, national, international) and to initiatives and instruments in public and private resource governance, such as corporate social responsibility instruments, certification schemes, international law and commodity markets. In doing so, the contributions contrast existing approaches to fairness and justice and extend them by taking into account the interplay between political scales, regions, resources, and power structures in "glocalized" resource politics. Various case studies are included concerning agriculture, agrofuels, land grabbing, water resources, mining and biodiversity. The volume adds to the academic and policy debate by bringing together a variety of disciplines and perspectives in order to advance both a research and policy agenda that puts notions of resource fairness and justice center-stage.

download ebook fairness and justice in environmental decision making pdf epub

Catherine Gross

By crossing disciplinary boundaries, this book uniquely connects theories of justice with people's lived experience within social conflicts over resource sharing. It shows why some conflicts, such as local opposition to wind farms and water disputes, have become intractable social problems in many countries of the world. It shows the power of injustice in generating opposition to decisions. The book answers the question: why are the results of many government initiatives and policies not accepted by those affected? Focusing on two social conflicts over water sharing in Australia to show why fairness and justice are important in decision-making, the book shows how these conflicts are typical of water sharing and other natural resource conflicts experienced in many countries around the world, particularly in the context of climate change. It tells the stories of these conflicts from the perspectives of those involved. These practically-based findings are then related back to ideas and constructs of justice from disciplines such as social psychology, political philosophy and jurisprudence. With a strong practical focus, this book offers readers an opportunity to develop a deep understanding of fairness and justice in environmental decision-making. It opens up a wealth of fairness and justice ideas for decision-makers, practitioners, and researchers in natural resource management, environmental governance, community consultation, and sustainable development, as well as people in government and corporations who interface and consult with communities where natural resources are being used.

download ebook interdisciplinary perspectives on fairness, equity, and justice pdf epub

Meng Li,David P. Tracer

This volume brings together cutting-edge research from emerging and senior scholars alike representing a variety of disciplines that bears on human preferences for fairness, equity and justice. Despite predictions derived from evolutionary and economic theories that individuals will behave in the service of maximizing their own utility and survival, humans not only behave cooperatively, but in many instances, truly altruistically, giving to unrelated others at a cost to themselves. Humans also seem preoccupied like no other species with issues of fairness, equity and justice. But what exactly is fair and how are norms of fairness maintained? How should we decide, and how do we decide, between equity and efficiency? How does the idea of fairness translate across cultures? What is the relationship between human evolution and the development of morality? The collected chapters shed light on these questions and more to advance our understanding of these uniquely human concerns. Structured on an increasing scale, this volume begins by exploring issues of fairness, equity, and justice in a micro scale, such as the neural basis of fairness, and then progresses by considering these issues in individual, family, and finally cultural and societal arenas. Importantly, contributors are drawn from fields as diverse as anthropology, neuroscience, behavioral economics, bioethics, and psychology. Thus, the chapters provide added value and insights when read collectively, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the distinct disciplines as they investigate similar research questions about prosociality. In addition, particular attention is given to experimental research approaches and policy implications for some of society's most pressing issues, such as allocation of scarce medical resources and moral development of children. Thought-provoking and informative, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Fairness, Equity, and Justice is a valuable read for public policy makers, anthropologists, ethicists, psychologists, neuroscientists, and all those interested in these questions about the essence of human nature.

download ebook tax fairness and folk justice pdf epub

Steven M. Sheffrin

Much of the discussion of tax fairness today focuses on distribution - who gets what. But this is too limited a focus. To the average person, tax fairness means something else: primarily receiving benefits commensurate with the taxes one pays, being treated with basic respect by the law and the tax authorities, and respecting legitimate efforts to earn income. The average person is not totally indifferent to inequality, but concerns for redistribution are moderated by the extent to which income and wealth have been perceived to be earned through honest effort. This book demonstrates how an understanding of "folk justice" can deepen our understanding of how tax systems actually work and how they might potentially be reformed.

download ebook fairness and justice in natural resource politics pdf epub

Melanie Pichler,Cornelia Staritz,Karin Küblböck,Christina Plank,Werner Raza,Fernando Ruiz Peyré

As demand for natural resources increases due to the rise in world population and living standards, conflicts over their access and control are becoming more prevalent. This book critically assesses different approaches to and conceptualizations of resource fairness and justice and applies them to the analysis of resource conflicts. Approaches addressed include cosmopolitan liberalism, political economy and political ecology. These are applied at various scales (local, national, international) and to initiatives and instruments in public and private resource governance, such as corporate social responsibility instruments, certification schemes, international law and commodity markets. In doing so, the contributions contrast existing approaches to fairness and justice and extend them by taking into account the interplay between political scales, regions, resources, and power structures in "glocalized" resource politics. Various case studies are included concerning agriculture, agrofuels, land grabbing, water resources, mining and biodiversity. The volume adds to the academic and policy debate by bringing together a variety of disciplines and perspectives in order to advance both a research and policy agenda that puts notions of resource fairness and justice center-stage.

download ebook eine form sozialer gerechtigkeit: gerechtigkeit als fairness (john rawls: a theory of justice) pdf epub

Stefan Roßteuscher

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2001 im Fachbereich Theologie - Systematische Theologie, Note: zwei, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Katholisch-Theologische Fakultät / Lehrstuhl für Christliche Sozialethik), Veranstaltung: Solidarität in der modernen Gesellschaft - Hinführung zu sozialethischen Grundfragen Urzustand Schleier des Nichtwissens, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Der Autor selbst benennt im Hauptgedanken als Anspruch für seine Gerechtigkeitstheorie die bekannte Theorie des Gesellschaftsvertrags zu verallgemeinern und auf eine höhere Abstraktionsebene zu heben. Er stellt sein Werk dabei selbst in direkten Bezug zu den neuzeitlichen Vertragstheorien von Thomas Hobbes‘ Leviathan, John Lockes Abhandlungen über die Regierung, Jean-Jaques Rousseaus Gesellschaftsvertrag und Immanuel Kants Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Rechtslehre. Diese wiederum greifen vielfach auf Platons Politeia und Aristoteles‘ Politik zurück. Sozialethik ist Strukturenethik: Sie beschäftigt sich demnach mit den sich Menschen gebenden Strukturen und Ordnungen von Institutionen und Normen. Hierzu prüft sie diese nach anthroposophischen Maßstäben und übt gegebenenfalls Kritik. Oberstes Prinzip ist hierbei der Mensch als Subjekt und Person. Sie erstreckt sich folglich über die gleichen Wirkungsbereiche wie Rawls‘ Gesellschaftstheorie. Gemeinsam stellen sie die Forderung nach sozialer Gerechtigkeit auf. Diese setzt sich aus den Gerechtigkeitsgrundformen der iustitia commutativa (Vertrags-Gerechtigkeit), iustitia distributiva (Teilhabe-Gerechtigkeit) und iustitia legalis (Gesetzes-Gerechtigkeit) zusammen. Darauf bauen die Dimensionen von Besitzstands-, Leistungs-, Chancen-, Bedürfnis- und Zukunftsgerechtigkeit auf. John Rawls schuf 1971 mit A Theory of Justice gleichermaßen persönliches und philosophiegeschichtliches Hauptwerk. Auf durchaus utopisiernde Weise systematisiert er seine Idee einer gerechten „Sozialethik“, die sich u. a. aus zuvor veröffentlichten Einzelaufsätzen speist und er später mehrfach modifiziert und auch revidiert hat. Versucht man eine kritische Wertung der Rawls’schen Gerechtigkeitstheorie findet man als zentrale Beurteilungsbegriffe rasch „Praxisbezug“ und „Praktizierbarkeit“. Grund dafür ist, dass eine soziale Ethik um nützlich zu sein unmittelbaren Bezug zu einer gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit haben muss. Desweiteren sieht Rawls seine Ideen deontologisch. Das bedeutet, dass, was theoretisch aufgestellt wird, auch in der Praxis so sein soll. Er bleibt dabei jedoch theorielastig und öffnet dem Einzelnen, der von der Theorie profitieren soll nur unzureichende Handlungsperspektiven. Verantwortung wird den Institutionen zugebilligt. Diese Verwischung von Theorie und Praxis lässt A Theory of Justice leicht zum grandiosen Fehlschlag werden.