Grometstein explains modern physics with enthusiasm, wit and insight. As he presents the usual milestones in the history of modern physics, his central focus is the historical debate regarding the nature of light: is it a particle or is it a wave? This book will be read by generations of students in physical science who seek a well written discussion of these important issues. Grometstein includes material which is quite recent, thus making the present volume particularly useful.
The book is devoted to the study of algebras of functions on quantum groups. The authors' approach to the subject is based on the parallels with symplectic geometry, allowing the reader to use geometric intuition in the theory of quantum groups. The book includes the theory of Poisson Lie groups (quasi-classical version of algebras of functions on quantum groups), a description of representations of algebras of functions, and the theory of quantum Weyl groups. This book can serve as a text for an introduction to the theory of quantum groups.
Recently, analogies between laboratory physics (e.g. quantum optics and condensed matter) and gravitational/cosmological phenomena such as black holes have attracted an increasing interest. This book contains a series of selected lectures devoted to this new and rapidly developing field. Various analogies connecting (apparently) different areas in physics are presented in order to bridge the gap between them and to provide an alternative point of view.
Volume 4 of the 5-volume Quantum Nanochemistry covers quantum (physical) chemical theory of solids and orderability and addresses the electronic order problems in the solid state viewed as a huge molecule in special quantum states, including also the bondonic treatment of the graphene nano-ribbons, along basic crystallographic principles, from geometrical-, to chemical- to physical- (x-ray) crystallography with featured examples, and energetic correlating symmetry discussion on orderability in nanochemical compounds.
With applications in quantum field theory, general relativity and elementary particle physics, this three-volume work studies the invariance of differential operators under Lie algebras, quantum groups and superalgebras. This second volume covers quantum groups in their two main manifestations: quantum algebras and matrix quantum groups. The exposition covers both the general aspects of these and a great variety of concrete explicitly presented examples. The invariant q-difference operators are introduced mainly using representations of quantum algebras on their dual matrix quantum groups as carrier spaces. This is the first book that covers the title matter applied to quantum groups. Contents Quantum Groups and Quantum Algebras Highest-Weight Modules over Quantum Algebras Positive-Energy Representations of Noncompact Quantum Algebras Duality for Quantum Groups Invariant q-Difference Operators Invariant q-Difference Operators Related to GLq(n) q-Maxwell Equations Hierarchies
This text explains the features of quantum and statistical field systems that result from their field-theoretic nature and are common to different physical contexts. It supplies the practical tools for carrying out calculations and discusses the meaning of the results. The central concept is that of effective action (or free energy), and the main technical tool is the path integral, although other formalisms are also mentioned. The author emphasizes the simplest models first, then progresses to discussions of real systems before addressing more general and rigorous conclusions. The book is structured around carefully selected problems, which are solved in detail.
Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics and other related areas such as telecommunications. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. Among the latter are such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity or periodically polled waveguide, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequency stabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and frequency locking a laser to an atomic or molecular line. The second edition includes a new complete chapter on optical waveguide theory, fiber optic components and fiber lasers. Other updates include new coverage of mode locked fiber lasers, comb generation in a micro-resonator, and periodically poled optical waveguides.
Quantum groups and quantum algebras as well as non-commutative differential geometry are important in mathematics and considered to be useful tools for model building in statistical and quantum physics. This book, addressing scientists and postgraduates, contains a detailed and rather complete presentation of the algebraic framework. Introductory chapters deal with background material such as Lie and Hopf superalgebras, Lie super-bialgebras, or formal power series. Great care was taken to present a reliable collection of formulae and to unify the notation, making this volume a useful work of reference for mathematicians and mathematical physicists.
Facts101 is your complete guide to Roots of Wisdom. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
First Published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Advances in Quantum Chemistry
Quantum-Mechanical Signal Processing and Spectral Analysis describes the novel application of quantum mechanical methods to signal processing across a range of interdisciplinary research fields. Conventionally, signal processing is viewed as an engineering discipline with its own specific scope, methods, concerns and priorities, not usually encompassing quantum mechanics. However, the dynamics of systems that generate time signals can be successfully described by the general principles and methods of quantum physics, especially within the Schrödinger framework. Most time signals that are measured experimentally are mathematically equivalent to quantum-mechanical auto-correlation functions built from the evolution operator and wavefunctions. This fact allows us to apply the rich conceptual strategies and mathematical apparatus of quantum mechanics to signal processing. Among the leading quantum-mechanical signal processing methods, this book emphasizes the role of Pade approximant and the Lanczos algorithm, highlighting the major benefits of their combination. These two methods are carefully incorporated within a unified framework of scattering and spectroscopy, developing an algorithmic power that can be exported to other disciplines. The novelty of the author's approach to key signal processing problems, the harmonic inversion and the moment problem, is in establishing the Pade approximant and Lanczos algorithm as entirely algerbraic spectral estimators. This is of paramount theoretical and practical importance, as now spectral analysis can be carried out from closed analytical expressions. This overrides the notorious mathematical ill-conditioning problems with round-off errors that plague inverse reconstructions in those fields that rely upon signal processing. Quantum-Mechanical Signal Processing and Spectral Analysis will be an invaluable resource for researchers involved in signal processing across a wide range of disciplines.
Each contribution is an article in itself, and great effort has been made by the authors to be lucid and not too technical. A few brief highlights of the round-table discussions are given between the chapters. Topics include: Quantum non-locality, the measurement problem, quantum insights into relativity, cosmology and thermodynamics, and possible bearings of quantum mechanics to biology and consciousness. Authors include Yakir Aharanov and Anton Zeilinger, plus Nobel laureates Anthony J. Leggett (2003) and Gerardus ‘t Hooft (1999). Foreword written by Sir Roger Penrose, best-selling author (The Emperor's New Mind) and world-renowned mathematical physicist.
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: Properties of non-parabolic energy bands Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrödinger equations Critical thickness of strained materials Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities Density matrix transport modelling Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is presented in a lucid style with easy to follow steps, illustrative examples and questions and computational problems in each chapter to help the reader build solid foundations of understanding to a level where they can initiate their own theoretical investigations. Suitable for postgraduate students of semiconductor and condensed matter physics, the book is essential to all those researching in academic and industrial laboratories worldwide. Instructors can contact the authors directly (email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org) for Solutions to the problems.
This volume contains the proceedings of the tenth international conference on Representation Theory of Algebraic Groups and Quantum Groups, held August 2-6, 2010, at Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. The survey articles and original papers contained in this volume offer a comprehensive view of current developments in the field. Among others reflecting recent trends, one central theme is research on representations in the affine case. In three articles, the authors study representations of W-algebras and affine Lie algebras at the critical level, and three other articles are related to crystals in the affine case, that is, Mirkovic-Vilonen polytopes for affine type $A$ and Kerov-Kirillov-Reshetikhin type bijection for affine type $E_6$. Other contributions cover a variety of topics such as modular representation theory of finite groups of Lie type, quantum queer super Lie algebras, Khovanov's arc algebra, Hecke algebras and cyclotomic $q$-Schur algebras, $G_1T$-Verma modules for reductive algebraic groups, equivariant $K$-theory of quantum vector bundles, and the cluster algebra. This book is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in geometric and combinatorial representation theory, and other related fields.
Starting with the quantum analog of sl2, the author carefully leads the reader through all the details necessary for full understanding of the subject, particularly emphasizing similarities and differences with the classical theory. The final chapters of the book describe the Kashiwara-Lusztig theory of so-called crystal (or canonical) bases in representations of complex semisimple Lie algebra.
The modular representation theory of Iwahori-Hecke algebras and this theory's connection to groups of Lie type is an area of rapidly expanding interest; it is one that has also seen a number of breakthroughs in recent years. In classifying the irreducible representations of Iwahori-Hecke algebras at roots of unity, this book is a particularly valuable addition to current research in this field. Using the framework provided by the Kazhdan-Lusztig theory of cells, the authors develop an analogue of James' (1970) "characteristic-free'' approach to the representation theory of Iwahori-Hecke algebras in general. Presenting a systematic and unified treatment of representations of Hecke algebras at roots of unity, this book is unique in its approach and includes new results that have not yet been published in book form. It also serves as background reading to further active areas of current research such as the theory of affine Hecke algebras and Cherednik algebras. The main results of this book are obtained by an interaction of several branches of mathematics, namely the theory of Fock spaces for quantum affine Lie algebras and Ariki's theorem, the combinatorics of crystal bases, the theory of Kazhdan-Lusztig bases and cells, and computational methods. This book will be of use to researchers and graduate students in representation theory as well as any researchers outside of the field with an interest in Hecke algebras.
This textbook is based on a mixture of simplified institutional theory and solved problems. The choice has been to limit the attention to key concepts and to the most typical aspects of atoms, molecules and solids, looking at the basic "structural" aspects without dealing in detail with the properties originating from them. The problems are entangled to the formal presentation of the arguments, being designed as an intrinsic part of the pathway the student should move by in order to grasp the key concepts.
This book entertainingly traces the history of physics from the observations of the earlyGreeks through the discoveries of Galileo and Newton to the dazzling theories of such scientists as Planck, Einstein, Bohr, and Bohm. This humanized view of science opens up the mind-stretching visions of how quantum mechanics, God, human thought, and will are related, and provides profound implications for our understanding of the nature of reality and our relationship to the cosmos.
Concepts of Quantum Optics is a coherent and sequential coverage of some real insight into quantum physics. This book is divided into six chapters, and begins with an overview of the principles and concepts of radiation and quanta, with an emphasis on the significance of the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. The next chapter describes first the properties of the radiation field in a bounded cavity, showing how each cavity field mode has the characteristics of a simple harmonic oscillator and how each can be quantized using known results for the quantum harmonic oscillator. This chapter also deals with the quantum fluctuations of the radiation field and the interpretation of a photon as an occupation of a normal mode of the system. These topics are followed by discussions of the radiation absorption and emission and the principles of coherent state and coherence functions. The final chapter considers the concept of semi-classical theory and its connection to quantum electrodynamics. This book is of value to undergraduate and postgraduate students who are starting research in laser physics or quantum optics.
With contributions by leading quantum physicists, philosophers and historians, this comprehensive A-to-Z of quantum physics provides a lucid understanding of key concepts of quantum theory and experiment. It covers technical and interpretational aspects alike, and includes both traditional and new concepts, making it an indispensable resource for concise, up-to-date information about the many facets of quantum physics.
Quantum Supplements bridges together the seemingly disparate scientific and spiritual realms through popular modern-day concepts — dietary supplements and nutrition and the ancient chakra system — to help people explore the every growing field of energy medicine. This user-friendly, cutting edge guide explains the “energy healing” and vibrational properties of vitamins, minerals, and herb/botanicals, specifically their effects on activating and balancing the body’s natural energy centers. Following a practical overview to the different types of dietary supplements and how they work, the author elaborates on the physiological and psychological activities of each energy center, or chakra, and the supplemental nutrients that assist their balance. The book includes many easy-to read tables and charts are provided as a quick reference guide to determining which supplements are most appropriate for any and everything from bolster the immune system to fight off frequent colds to improving circulation to fighting memory loss.
Quantum Information Processing and Quantum Error Correction is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information, quantum computation, and quantum error-correction. Assuming no knowledge of quantum mechanics and written at an intuitive level suitable for the engineer, the book gives all the essential principles needed to design and implement quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Numerous examples from a wide area of application are given to show how the principles can be implemented in practice. This book is ideal for the electronics, photonics and computer engineer who requires an easy- to-understand foundation on the principles of quantum information processing and quantum error correction, together with insight into how to develop quantum electronic and photonic circuits. Readers of this book will be ready for further study in this area, and will be prepared to perform independent research. The reader completed the book will be able design the information processing circuits, stabilizer codes, Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, subsystem codes, topological codes and entanglement-assisted quantum error correction codes; and propose corresponding physical implementation. The reader completed the book will be proficient in quantum fault-tolerant design as well. Unique Features Unique in covering both quantum information processing and quantum error correction – everything in one book that an engineer needs to understand and implement quantum-level circuits. Gives an intuitive understanding by not assuming knowledge of quantum mechanics, thereby avoiding heavy mathematics. In-depth coverage of the design and implementation of quantum information processing and quantum error correction circuits. Provides the right balance among the quantum mechanics, quantum error correction, quantum computing and quantum communication. Dr. Djordjevic is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of College of Engineering, University of Arizona, with a joint appointment in the College of Optical Sciences. Prior to this appointment in August 2006, he was with University of Arizona, Tucson, USA (as a Research Assistant Professor); University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Tyco Telecommunications, Eatontown, USA; and National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece. His current research interests include optical networks, error control coding, constrained coding, coded modulation, turbo equalization, OFDM applications, and quantum error correction. He presently directs the Optical Communications Systems Laboratory (OCSL) within the ECE Department at the University of Arizona. Provides everything an engineer needs in one tutorial-based introduction to understand and implement quantum-level circuits Avoids the heavy use of mathematics by not assuming the previous knowledge of quantum mechanics Provides in-depth coverage of the design and implementation of quantum information processing and quantum error correction circuits
By the year 2020, the basic memory components of a computer will be the size of individual atoms. At such scales, the current theory of computation will become invalid. "Quantum computing" is reinventing the foundations of computer science and information theory in a way that is consistent with quantum physics - the most accurate model of reality currently known. Remarkably, this theory predicts that quantum computers can perform certain tasks breathtakingly faster than classical computers – and, better yet, can accomplish mind-boggling feats such as teleporting information, breaking supposedly "unbreakable" codes, generating true random numbers, and communicating with messages that betray the presence of eavesdropping. This widely anticipated second edition of Explorations in Quantum Computing explains these burgeoning developments in simple terms, and describes the key technological hurdles that must be overcome to make quantum computers a reality. This easy-to-read, time-tested, and comprehensive textbook provides a fresh perspective on the capabilities of quantum computers, and supplies readers with the tools necessary to make their own foray into this exciting field. Topics and features: concludes each chapter with exercises and a summary of the material covered; provides an introduction to the basic mathematical formalism of quantum computing, and the quantum effects that can be harnessed for non-classical computation; discusses the concepts of quantum gates, entangling power, quantum circuits, quantum Fourier, wavelet, and cosine transforms, and quantum universality, computability, and complexity; examines the potential applications of quantum computers in areas such as search, code-breaking, solving NP-Complete problems, quantum simulation, quantum chemistry, and mathematics; investigates the uses of quantum information, including quantum teleportation, superdense coding, quantum data compression, quantum cloning, quantum negation, and quantum cryptography; reviews the advancements made towards practical quantum computers, covering developments in quantum error correction and avoidance, and alternative models of quantum computation. This text/reference is ideal for anyone wishing to learn more about this incredible, perhaps "ultimate," computer revolution. Dr. Colin P. Williams is Program Manager for Advanced Computing Paradigms at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and CEO of Xtreme Energetics, Inc. an advanced solar energy company. Dr. Williams has taught quantum computing and quantum information theory as an acting Associate Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University. He has spent over a decade inspiring and leading high technology teams and building business relationships with and Silicon Valley companies. Today his interests include terrestrial and Space-based power generation, quantum computing, cognitive computing, computational material design, visualization, artificial intelligence, evolutionary computing, and remote olfaction. He was formerly a Research Scientist at Xerox PARC and a Research Assistant to Prof. Stephen W. Hawking, Cambridge University.
A series of seminal technological revolutions has led to a new generation of electronic devices miniaturized to such tiny scales where the strange laws of quantum physics come into play. There is no doubt that, unlike scientists and engineers of the past, technology leaders of the future will have to rely on quantum mechanics in their everyday work. This makes teaching and learning the subject of paramount importance for further progress. Mastering quantum physics is a very non-trivial task and its deep understanding can only be achieved through working out real-life problems and examples. It is notoriously difficult to come up with new quantum-mechanical problems that would be solvable with a pencil and paper, and within a finite amount of time. This book remarkably presents some 700+ original problems in quantum mechanics together with detailed solutions covering nearly 1000 pages on all aspects of quantum science. The material is largely new to the English-speaking audience. The problems have been collected over about 60 years, first by the lead author, the late Prof. Victor Galitski, Sr. Over the years, new problems were added and the material polished by Prof. Boris Karnakov. Finally, Prof. Victor Galitski, Jr., has extended the material with new problems particularly relevant to modern science.
This classic text provides an excellent introduction to a new and rapidly developing field of research. Now well established as a textbook in this rapidly developing field of research, the new edition is much enlarged and covers a host of new results.
Quantum mechanics is said to be the most successful physical theory ever. It is, in fact, unique in its success when applied to concrete physical problems. On the other hand, however, it raises profound conceptual problems that are equally unprecedented. Quantum logic, the topic of this volume, can be described as an attempt to cast light on the puzzle of quantum mechanics from the point of view of logic. Since its inception in the famous 1936 paper by Birkhoff and von Neumann entitled, “The logic of quantum mechanics, quantum logic has undergone an enormous development. Various schools of thought and approaches have emerged, and there are a variety of technical results. The chapters of this volume constitute a comprehensive presentation of the main schools, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic. • Authored by eminent scholars in the field • Material presented is of recent origin representing the frontier of the subject. • Provides the most comprehensive and varied discussion of Quantum Mechanics available.
Advances in Ecological Research
John von Neumann (1903-1957) was undoubtedly one of the scientific geniuses of the 20th century. The main fields to which he contributed include various disciplines of pure and applied mathematics, mathematical and theoretical physics, logic, theoretical computer science, and computer architecture. Von Neumann was also actively involved in politics and science management and he had a major impact on US government decisions during, and especially after, the Second World War. There exist several popular books on his personality and various collections focusing on his achievements in mathematics, computer science, and economy. Strangely enough, to date no detailed appraisal of his seminal contributions to the mathematical foundations of quantum physics has appeared. Von Neumann's theory of measurement and his critique of hidden variables became the touchstone of most debates in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Today, his name also figures most prominently in the mathematically rigorous branches of contemporary quantum mechanics of large systems and quantum field theory. And finally - as one of his last lectures, published in this volume for the first time, shows - he considered the relation of quantum logic and quantum mechanical probability as his most important problem for the second half of the twentieth century. The present volume embraces both historical and systematic analyses of his methodology of mathematical physics, and of the various aspects of his work in the foundations of quantum physics, such as theory of measurement, quantum logic, and quantum mechanical entropy. The volume is rounded off by previously unpublished letters and lectures documenting von Neumann's thinking about quantum theory after his 1932 Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. The general part of the Yearbook contains papers emerging from the Institute's annual lecture series and reviews of important publications of philosophy of science and its history.
This book deals with the foundations of classical physics from the “symplectic” point of view, and of quantum mechanics from the “metaplectic” point of view. The Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics is discussed. Phase space quantization is achieved using the “principle of the symplectic camel”, which is a recently discovered deep topological property of Hamiltonian flows. The mathematical tools developed in this book are the theory of the metaplectic group, the Maslov index in a precise form, and the Leray index of a pair of Lagrangian planes. The concept of the “metatron” is introduced, in connection with the Bohmian theory of motion. A precise form of Feynman's integral is introduced in connection with the extended metaplectic representation. Contents:From Kepler to Schrödinger … and BeyondNewtonian MechanicsThe Symplectic GroupAction and PhaseSemi-Classical MechanicsThe Metaplectic Group and the Maslov IndexSchrödinger's Equation and the Metatron Readership: Researchers and graduate students in mathematical physics. Keywords:Newtonian Mechanics;Quantum Mechanics;Bohmian Theory;Kepler;Schrödinger;Semi-Classical Mechanics;Metatron
This monograph provides a mathematical foundation to the theory of quantum information and computation, with applications to various open systems including nano and bio systems. It includes introductory material on algorithm, functional analysis, probability theory, information theory, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Apart from standard material on quantum information like quantum algorithm and teleportation, the authors discuss findings on the theory of entropy in C*-dynamical systems, space-time dependence of quantum entangled states, entangling operators, adaptive dynamics, relativistic quantum information, and a new paradigm for quantum computation beyond the usual quantum Turing machine. Also, some important applications of information theory to genetics and life sciences, as well as recent experimental and theoretical discoveries in quantum photosynthesis are described.
“The father of cognitive neuroscience” illuminates the past, present, and future of the mind-brain problem How do neurons turn into minds? How does physical “stuff”—atoms, molecules, chemicals, and cells—create the vivid and various worlds inside our heads? The problem of consciousness has gnawed at us for millennia. In the last century there have been massive breakthroughs that have rewritten the science of the brain, and yet the puzzles faced by the ancient Greeks are still present. In The Consciousness Instinct, the neuroscience pioneer Michael S. Gazzaniga puts the latest research in conversation with the history of human thinking about the mind, giving a big-picture view of what science has revealed about consciousness. The idea of the brain as a machine, first proposed centuries ago, has led to assumptions about the relationship between mind and brain that dog scientists and philosophers to this day. Gazzaniga asserts that this model has it backward—brains make machines, but they cannot be reduced to one. New research suggests the brain is actually a confederation of independent modules working together. Understanding how consciousness could emanate from such an organization will help define the future of brain science and artificial intelligence, and close the gap between brain and mind. Captivating and accessible, with insights drawn from a lifetime at the forefront of the field, The Consciousness Instinct sets the course for the neuroscience of tomorrow.
Quantum groups are a generalization of the classical Lie groups and Lie algebras and provide a natural extension of the concept of symmetry fundamental to physics. This monograph is a survey of the major developments in quantum groups, using an original approach based on the fundamental concept of a tensor operator. Using this concept, properties of both the algebra and co-algebra are developed from a single uniform point of view, which is especially helpful for understanding the noncommuting co-ordinates of the quantum plane, which we interpret as elementary tensor operators. Representations of the q-deformed angular momentum group are discussed, including the case where q is a root of unity, and general results are obtained for all unitary quantum groups using the method of algebraic induction. Tensor operators are defined and discussed with examples, and a systematic treatment of the important (3j) series of operators is developed in detail. This book is a good reference for graduate students in physics and mathematics. Contents:Origins of Quantum GroupsRepresentations of Unitary Quantum GroupsTensor Operators in Quantum GroupsThe Dual Algebra and the Factor GroupQuantum Rotation MatricesQuantum Groups at Roots of UnityAlgebraic Induction of Quantum Group RepresentationsSpecial TopicsBibliographyIndex Readership: Physicists and mathematicians interested in symmetry techniques in physics. keywords:Quantum Groups;Quantum Algebras;Tensor Operators;Symmetries;Representations;q-Boson Operators;q-Clebsch-Gordan Coefficients;Vector Coherent States;Algebraic Induction;Weyl-Ordered Polynomials
Starting from basic principles, the book systematically covers both Heisenberg and Schrödinger realizations of quantum mechanics (in this order). It provides excellent didactic introduction to the essential principles and treats recent concepts such as entanglement and decoherence. The book gives the background needed to understand quantum cryptography, teleportation and computation, and it is especially suitable for introducing the spin. This second edition includes a more friendly presentation to Hilbert spaces, and more practical applications e.g. scanning tunneling microscope (potential barrier).
For a physicist, all the world is information. The Universe and its workings are the ebb and flow of information. We are all transient patterns of information, passing on the recipe for our basic forms to future generations using a four-letter digital code called DNA. In this engaging and mind-stretching account, Vlatko Vedral considers some of the deepest questions about the Universe and considers the implications of interpreting it in terms of information. He explains the nature of information, the idea of entropy, and the roots of this thinking in thermodynamics. He describes the bizarre effects of quantum behaviour — effects such as 'entanglement', which Einstein called 'spooky action at a distance', and explores cutting edge work on harnessing quantum effects in hyperfast quantum computers, and how recent evidence suggests that the weirdness of the quantum world, once thought limited to the tiniest scales, may reach into the macro world. Vedral finishes by considering the answer to the ultimate question: where did all of the information in the Universe come from? The answers he considers are exhilarating, drawing upon the work of distinguished physicist John Wheeler. The ideas challenge our concept of the nature of particles, of time, of determinism, and of reality itself. This edition includes a new foreword from the author, reflecting on changes in the world of quantum information since first publication. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
Why is the future so different from the past? Why does the past affect the future and not the other way around? What does quantum mechanics really tell us about the world? In this important and accessible book, Huw Price throws fascinating new light on some of the great mysteries of modern physics, and connects them in a wholly original way. Price begins with the mystery of the arrow of time. Why, for example, does disorder always increase, as required by the second law of thermodynamics? Price shows that, for over a century, most physicists have thought about these problems the wrong way. Misled by the human perspective from within time, which distorts and exaggerates the differences between past and future, they have fallen victim to what Price calls the "double standard fallacy": proposed explanations of the difference between the past and the future turn out to rely on a difference which has been slipped in at the beginning, when the physicists themselves treat the past and future in different ways. To avoid this fallacy, Price argues, we need to overcome our natural tendency to think about the past and the future differently. We need to imagine a point outside time -- an Archimedean "view from nowhen" -- from which to observe time in an unbiased way. Offering a lively criticism of many major modern physicists, including Richard Feynman and Stephen Hawking, Price shows that this fallacy remains common in physics today -- for example, when contemporary cosmologists theorize about the eventual fate of the universe. The "big bang" theory normally assumes that the beginning and end of the universe will be very different. But if we are to avoid the double standard fallacy, we need to consider time symmetrically, and take seriously the possibility that the arrow of time may reverse when the universe recollapses into a "big crunch." Price then turns to the greatest mystery of modern physics, the meaning of quantum theory. He argues that in missing the Archimedean viewpoint, modern physics has missed a radical and attractive solution to many of the apparent paradoxes of quantum physics. Many consequences of quantum theory appear counterintuitive, such as Schrodinger's Cat, whose condition seems undetermined until observed, and Bell's Theorem, which suggests a spooky "nonlocality," where events happening simultaneously in different places seem to affect each other directly. Price shows that these paradoxes can be avoided by allowing that at the quantum level the future does, indeed, affect the past. This demystifies nonlocality, and supports Einstein's unpopular intuition that quantum theory describes an objective world, existing independently of human observers: the Cat is alive or dead, even when nobody looks. So interpreted, Price argues, quantum mechanics is simply the kind of theory we ought to have expected in microphysics -- from the symmetric standpoint. Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point presents an innovative and controversial view of time and contemporary physics. In this exciting book, Price urges physicists, philosophers, and anyone who has ever pondered the mysteries of time to look at the world from the fresh perspective of Archimedes' Point and gain a deeper understanding of ourselves, the universe around us, and our own place in time.
ROOTS OF WISDOM, Sixth Edition, invites students to explore universal and current philosophical issues through a rich tapestry of perspectives including the ideas and traditions of men and women from the West, Asia, Peoples of the Americas, and Africa. No other book offers such breadth of multicultural coverage coupled with a clear, concise, and approachable writing style. Mitchell uses striking color and black and white images to illustrate our diverse cultural inheritance, using fine art, cartoons, poetry, movies, and popular music to bring the issues of philosophy to life for the student. This new edition features four new color inserts to illustrate philosophical themes as well as new material on animal intelligence, brain science, Asian approaches to war, and from President Obama’s memoir on race and identity. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.