What will planet Earth be like in twenty years? At mid-century? In the year 2100? Prescient and convincing, this book is a must-read for anyone concerned about the future. Never has the world offered more promise for the future and been more fraught with dangers. Attali anticipates an unraveling of American hegemony as transnational corporations sever the ties linking free enterprise to democracy. World tensions will be primed for horrific warfare for resources and dominance. The ultimate question is: Will we leave our children and grandchildren a world that is not only viable but better, or in this nuclear world bequeath to them a planet that will be a living hell? Either way, he warns, the time to act is now.
A catalogue raisonn? of the works of the most eminent Dutch painters of the seventeenth century based on the work of John Smith. Translated and edited by Edward G. Hawke. Volume 1.
Since becoming the capital of reunited Germany, Berlin has had a dose of global money and international style added to its already impressive cultural veneer. Once home to emperors and dictators, peddlers and spies, it is now a fashion showplace that attracts the young and hip. Moving beyond descriptions of Berlin's fashion industry and its ready-to-wear clothing, Berliner Chic charts the turbulent stories of entrepreneurially-savvy manufacturers and cultural workers striving to establish their city as a fashion capital, and being repeatedly interrupted by politics, ideology, and war. There are many stories to tell about Berlin's fashion industry and Berliner Chic tells them all with considerable expertise.
From 1907 to 1931 at Tendaguru, a remote site in present-day Tanzania, teams of German (and later British) paleontologists unearthed 220 tons of fossils, including the bones of a new dinosaur, one of the largest then known. For decades the mounted skeleton of this giant, Brachiosaurus, was the largest skeleton of a land animal on exhibit in the world. The dinosaur and other animal fossils found at Tendaguru form one of the cornerstones of our understanding of life in the Mesozoic era. Visited sporadically during the ’30s and ’40s, Tendaguru again became the site of scientific interest late in the 20th century. African Dinosaurs Unearthed tells the story of driven scientific adventurers working under difficult conditions and often paying the price with their health—and sometimes with their lives. Set against the background of a troubled century, the book reveals how scientific endeavors were carried on through war and political turmoil, and continue into the present day.
Volume One of the thoroughly revised and updated guide to the study of biodiversity in insects The second edition of Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society brings together in one comprehensive text contributions from leading scientific experts to assess the influence insects have on humankind and the earth’s fragile ecosystems. Revised and updated, this new edition includes information on the number of substantial changes to entomology and the study of biodiversity. It includes current research on insect groups, classification, regional diversity, and a wide range of concepts and developing methodologies. The authors examine why insect biodiversity matters and how the rapid evolution of insects is affecting us all. This book explores the wide variety of insect species and their evolutionary relationships. Case studies offer assessments on how insect biodiversity can help meet the needs of a rapidly expanding human population, and also examine the consequences that an increased loss of insect species will have on the world. This important text: Explores the rapidly increasing influence on systematics of genomics and next-generation sequencing Includes developments in the use of DNA barcoding in insect systematics and in the broader study of insect biodiversity, including the detection of cryptic species Discusses the advances in information science that influence the increased capability to gather, manipulate, and analyze biodiversity information Comprises scholarly contributions from leading scientists in the field Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society highlights the rapid growth of insect biodiversity research and includes an expanded treatment of the topic that addresses the major insect groups, the zoogeographic regions of biodiversity, and the scope of systematics approaches for handling biodiversity data.
Careers in astronomy for women (as in other sciences) were a rarity in Britain and Ireland until well into the twentieth century. The book investigates the place of women in astronomy before that era, recounted in the form of biographies of about 25 women born between 1650 and 1900 who in varying capacities contributed to its progress during the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. There are some famous names among them whose biographies have been written before now, there are others who have received less than their due recognition while many more occupied inconspicuous and sometimes thankless places as assistants to male family members. All deserve to be remembered as interesting individuals in an earlier opportunity-poor age. Placed in roughly chronological order, their lives constitute a sample thread in the story of female entry into the male world of science. The book is aimed at astronomers, amateur astronomers, historians of science, and promoters of women in science, but being written in non-technical language it is intended to be of interest also to educated readers generally.
J. Paul Getty had a passion for the exquisitely made furniture and decorative objects of eighteenth-century France, which he began collecting in the 1930s. Gillian Wilson, curator of decorative arts since 1971, has broadened and strengthened the collection, adding Boulle furniture, mounted oriental porcelain, tapestries, clocks, ceramics, and more. In the 1980s and 1990s the Museum continued to enlarge its decorative arts holdings, creating a European sculpture department in 1984 and adding glass, maiolica, goldsmiths’ work, pietre dure, and furniture from Italy and Northern Europe. This book is a revised and expanded edition of Decorative Arts: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue of the Collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum (1993). In addition to more than forty recent acquisitions—among these four wall sconces from Versailles that once belonged to Marie Antoinette and an elaborate upholstered bed from the collection of Karl Lagerfeld—it includes the results of years of research. Designed for scholars, students, and devotees of the decorative arts, this volume provides a comprehensive look at the Getty's fine collection.
For almost eight hundred years (100 BC–AD 650) Nasca artists modeled and painted the plants, animals, birds, and fish of their homeland on Peru’s south coast as well as numerous abstract anthropomorphic creatures whose form and meaning are sometimes incomprehensible today. In this first book-length treatment of Nasca ceramic iconography to appear in English, drawing upon an archive of more than eight thousand Nasca vessels from over 150 public and private collections, Donald Proulx systematically describes the major artistic motifs of this stunning polychrome pottery, interprets the major themes displayed on this pottery, and then uses these descriptions and his stimulating interpretations to analyze Nasca society. After beginning with an overview of Nasca culture and an explanation of the style and chronology of Nasca pottery, Proulx moves to the heart of his book: a detailed classification and description of the entire range of supernatural and secular themes in Nasca iconography along with a fresh and distinctive interpretation of these themes. Linking the pots and their iconography to the archaeologically known Nasca society, he ends with a thorough and accessible examination of this ancient culture viewed through the lens of ceramic iconography. Although these static images can never be fully understood, by animating their themes and meanings Proulx reconstructs the lifeways of this complex society.
Inside the World’s Major East Asian Collections examines the rise of the “LAM,” an acronym that stands for libraries, archives and museums. In doing so, this book profiles leading experts—librarians, archivists and museum curators—who specialise in East Asian collections from across the world. In examining the dynamically shifting role of the cultural institution in the context of managing information and collections, this book provides important themes offered by these cultural experts in understanding the necessary professional skills, knowledge and personalities that are required for working in such environments of varying size, scope and composition in LAMs. As galleries, LAMs manage preservation and access of history and culture, and their missions and goals as cultural institutions continue to converge. As collecting institutions, LAMs share the common mandate to preserve and make accessible primary resources valuable for researchers and professionals, as well as the public. LAMs are mostly publicly funded, publicly accountable institutions collecting cultural heritage materials. Another aim of this book is to enhance the visibility and recognise the efforts of the LAM professionals as cultural institution leaders, since much of their great contributions in the respective fields to preserving our cultural and documentary heritages have gone unnoticed outside their parent institutions. Examines the roles and goals of cultural institutions Brings collections to life through interviews with LAM experts Presents LAMs with a focus on East Asia Serves as a platform for LAM professionals to share and exchange experiences and insights
Myth into Art is a comparative study of mythological narrative in Greek poetry and the visual arts. Thirty of the major myths are surveyed, focusing on Homer, lyric poetry and Attic tragedy. On the artistic side, the emphasis is on Athenian and South Italian vases. The book offers undergraduate students an introduction both to mythology and to the use of visual sources in the study of Greek myth.
Within a short time the Department of Drawings has acquired impressive holdings of European works on paper. This volume, the first in a series intended to keep scholars apprised of acquisitions, contains 149 entries on Italian, French, Flemish, Dutch, and other works ranging in date from the Renaissance through the nineteenth century. Artists represented include Rembrandt, Cezanne, Blake, Goya, Dürer, Savery, Rubens, Millet, Veronese, Caravaggio, Raphael, and numerous others. All drawings are illustrated at full-page size.
The Red and the Black covers the major stages in the history of Greek pottery production, both figured and plain, as they are understood today. It provides an up-to-date evaluation of ways of studying Greek pottery and encourages new approaches. There is a detailed analysis of the subject matter of figured scenes covering some of the main preoccupations of ancient Greece: myth, fantasy and everyday life. Furthermore, it sets the artefacts in the context of the societies that produced them, highlighting the social, art historical, mythological and economic information that can be revealed from their study. This volume also covers a hitherto neglected area: the history of the collecting of Greek pottery through the Renaissance and up to the present day. It shows how market values have gradually increased to the high prices of today and goes on to take a closer look at the enthusiasm of the collectors.
Which will be sold by auction, by messrs S. Leigh sotheby & Co. Author Buckingham and Chandos, Richard Plantagenet Temple Nugent Brydges Chandos Grenville Duke of, 1797-1861
This volume is a critical edition of 426 Neo-Assyrian legal documents from the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum.It includes those texts which have been identified as belonging to an individual (archive-holder) and thus forming a dossier or archive. 406 tablets are ascribed in this edition to 192 names. The majority of documents edited in this book are conveyance texts and may be divided into two categories: the sale of immovable and the sale of movable property. The sale of movable property is almost exclusively represented in this edition by the sale of persons. The majority of contracts are loan documents, while juridical documents - usually court decisions - are quite rare among the Kouyunjik texts.
The successful interpretation of the ancient writings of Egypt, Chaldæa, and Persia, which has distinguished our times, makes it necessary that the history of antiquity should be rewritten. Documents that for thousands of years lay hidden beneath the soil, and inscriptions which, like those of Egypt and Persia, long offered themselves to the gaze of man merely to excite his impotent curiosity, have now been deciphered and made to render up their secrets for the guidance of the historian. By the help of those strings of hieroglyphs and of cuneiform characters, illustrated by paintings and sculptured reliefs, we are enabled to separate the truth from the falsehood, the chaff from the wheat, in the narratives of the Greek writers who busied themselves with those nations of Africa and Asia which preceded their own in the ways of civilization. Day by day, as new monuments have been discovered and more certain methods of reading their inscriptions elaborated, we have added to the knowledge left us by Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, to our acquaintance with those empires on the Euphrates and the Nile which were already in old age when the Greeks were yet struggling to emerge from their primitive barbarism. Even in the cases of Greece and Rome, whose histories are supplied in their main lines by their classic writers, the study of hitherto neglected writings discloses many new and curious details. The energetic search for ancient inscriptions, and the scrupulous and ingenious interpretation of their meaning, which we have witnessed and are witnessing, have revealed to us many interesting facts of which no trace is to be found in Thucydides or Xenophon, in Livy or Tacitus; enabling us to enrich with more than one feature the picture of private and public life which they have handed down to us. In the effort to embrace the life of ancient times as a whole, many attempts have been made to fix the exact place in it occupied by art, but those attempts have never been absolutely successful, because the comprehension of works of art, of plastic creations in the widest significance of that word, demands an amount of special knowledge which the great majority of historians are without; art has a method and language of its own, which obliges those who wish to learn it thoroughly to cultivate their taste by frequenting the principal museums of Europe, by visiting distant regions at the cost of considerable trouble and expense, by perpetual reference to the great collections of engravings, photographs, and other reproductions which considerations of space and cost prevent the savant from possessing at home. More than one learned author has never visited Italy or Greece, or has found no time to examine their museums, each of which contains but a small portion of the accumulated remains of antique art. Some connoisseurs do not even live in a capital, but dwell far from those public libraries, which often contain valuable collections, and sometimes—when they are not packed away in cellars or at the binder's—allow them to be studied by the curious. The study of art, difficult enough in itself, is thus rendered still more arduous by the obstacles which are thrown in its way. The difficulty of obtaining materials for self-improvement in this direction affords the true explanation of the absence, in modern histories of antiquity, of those laborious researches which have led to such great results since Winckelmann founded the science of archæology as we know it. To be continue in this ebook...
Islamic History through Coins has become the standard reference for Islamic coinage struck by the Ikhshidid rulers of Egypt and Palestine (935-69). The second edition not only corrects minor errors in the first edition but adds data on more than three hundred new specimens, including a half-dozen coin types not identified in the first edition. The new specimens include two examples struck with the mint name Mecca and a gold issue associated with the famous eunuch Kafur, two years before he became sole ruler of Egypt. As noted in a number of very positive reviews, the value of this book is that it serves two distinct audiences successfully. While the first part of the book is considered the best introduction to the study of Islamic coinage available in English and serves the needs of students, faculty, collectors and dealers who are seeking a place to start their possible study of Islamic numismatics, the second half is a catalogue of more than 1,500 specimens, enabling curators, collectors, and dealers to identify coins and their relative rarity. The early chapters, which are heavily illustrated, demonstrate how numismatic evidence can be used to enhance our understanding of this period of Islamic rule. For example, the coinage reveals the hierarchy of parts of the names used by the Ikhshidid rulers, which cannot be found in narrative texts, and the retention of a pre-Islamic artistic memory of their Central Asian origins unknown until this study of their coinage.
New species are discovered every day—and cataloguing all of them has grown into a nearly insurmountable task worldwide. Now, this definitive reference manual acts as a style guide for writing and filing species descriptions. New collecting techniques and new technology have led to a dramatic increase in the number of species that are discovered. Explorations of unstudied regions and new habitats for almost any group of organisms can result in a large number of new species discoveries—and hence the need to be described. Yet there is no one source a student or researcher can readily consult to learn the basic practical aspects of taxonomic procedures. Species description can present a variety of difficulties: Problems arise when new species are not given names because their discoverers do not know how to write a formal species description or when these species are poorly described. Biologists may also have to deal with nomenclatural problems created by previous workers or resulting from new information generated by their own research. This practical resource for scientists and students contains instructions and examples showing how to describe newly discovered species in both the animal and plant kingdoms. With special chapters on publishing taxonomic papers and on ecology in species description, as well as sections covering subspecies, genus-level, and higher taxa descriptions, Describing Species enhances any writer's taxonomic projects, reports, checklists, floras, faunal surveys, revisions, monographs, or guides. The volume is based on current versions of the International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomenclature and recognizes that systematics is a global and multicultural exercise. Though Describing Species has been written for an English-speaking audience, it is useful anywhere Taxonomy is spoken and will be a valuable tool for professionals and students in zoology, botany, ecology, paleontology, and other fields of biology.
The faking and forgery of works of art and antiquities is probably now more extensive than ever before. The frauds are aided by new technologies, from ink jet printers to epoxy resins, and driven by the astronomic prices realised on the global market. This book aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the subject over a wide range of materials, emphasising how the fakes and forgeries are produced and how they may be detected by technical and scientific examination. The subject is exemplified by numerous case studies, some turning out not to be as conclusive as is sometimes believed. The book is aimed at those likely to have a serious interest in these investigations, be they curator, collector, conservator or scientist. Paul Craddock has recently retired from the Department of Conservation, Documentation and Science at the British Museum, where he was a materials scientist.
At the completion of this critical bibliography which forms another step in the direction of the realization of the bibliographical project inaugurated in 1955 by Dr. Voorhoeve's survey of the languages of Sumatra, I acknowledge with gratitude the valuable assistance received from various people. I am indebted to my colleagues Prof. Dr. G. W. J. Drewes, Dr. J. Noorduyn, Dr. Th. Pigeaud, Prof. Dr. A. Teeuw and Dr. P. Voorhoeve, who read all or part of the manuscript and who generously put their extensive knowledge of the Java languages at my disposal. Heartfelt thanks are due to Mr. B. J. Hoff and Mr. A. G. Sciarone, both members of my staff, who verified many of the biblio graphical details. I am grateful to the library of the University of Leiden and to the library of the Institute in The Hague because of their readiness in giving me all the facilities I needed for the preparation of this book. Most useful was the cordial assistance received from my colleague Prof. Dr. P. E. de Josselin de Jong, who spent much time correcting the many imperfections of my English text, which greatly promoted the readability of the narrative sections of this survey.
Editor’s note : These definitions err on the side of succinctness and are intended to be beginning points for the serious student. An attempt to standardize terminology commonly found in the medium of fine arts photographs that avoids copyrighted term or trade names (‘‘dye-destruction print’’ in lieu of ‘‘Cibachrome’’ and so on) has been made using guidelines set forth by the J. Paul Getty Institute. In acknowledgment of the increase in collecting vintage prints and the perennial interest in historical processes, many nineteenth century processes and obsolete terms are included. Cross referencing within the glossary is indicated by italics; encyclopedia entries are indicated by small capitals. Additive colors The primary colors of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colors in photo- graphic reproduction. See entry COLOR THEORY: NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC . Agfacolor Trade name for a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company Agfa-Gevaert; analogous to Kodachrome and Ansocolor. Albumen print Prints obtained from a process in wide use during the nineteenth century in which paper is prepared with an albumen emulsion obtained from egg whites and made light sensitive with a silver nitrate solution. See also Collodion process ; Dry plate processes . Amberlith An orange acetate historically used for masking mechanicals during the process of preparing plates for commercial printing. The area so masked photographs as black to the camera, printing clear on the resulting positive film. See also Rubylith . Ambrotype An image created by the collodion process, historically on glass, which gives the illusion of being positive when placed against a dark backing, often a layer of black lacquer, paper, or velvet. Also see Ferrotype . Anamorphic image An image featuring differing scales of magnification across the picture plane, especially varying along the vertical and horizontal axes, with the result being extreme distortion. Aniline A rapid-drying oil-based solvent used in the preparation of dyes and inks for photographic applications. Aniline process A method of making prints directly from line art (drawings) on translucent materials bypassing the need for a negative. Also see Diazo process . Aniline printing See Flexography . Angle of incidence The measurement in degrees in terms of the deviation from the perpendicular of the angle at which light hits a surface. Angle of view The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projected from the optical center of a lens to the edges of the field of view. This measurement is used to identify lenses and their appropriateness to capture various widths or degrees of actual space in a photographic representation, thus an extreme telephoto lens captures between 6 and 15
By far one of the most important objects of worship in the Buddhist traditions, the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara is regarded as the embodiment of compassion. He has been widely revered throughout the Buddhist countries of Asia since the early centuries of the Common Era. While he was closely identified with the royalty in South and Southeast Asia, and the Tibetans continue to this day to view the Dalai Lamas as his incarnations, in China he became a she—Kuan-yin, the "Goddess of Mercy"—and has a very different history. The causes and processes of this metamorphosis have perplexed Buddhist scholars for centuries. In this groundbreaking, comprehensive study, Chün-fang Yü discusses this dramatic transformation of the (male) Indian bodhisattva Avalokitesvara into the (female) Chinese Kuan-yin—from a relatively minor figure in the Buddha's retinue to a universal savior and one of the most popular deities in Chinese religion. Focusing on the various media through which the feminine Kuan-yin became constructed and domesticated in China, Yü thoroughly examines Buddhist scriptures, miracle stories, pilgrimages, popular literature, and monastic and local gazetteers—as well as the changing iconography reflected in Kuan-yin's images and artistic representations—to determine the role this material played in this amazing transformation. The book eloquently depicts the domestication of Kuan-yin as a case study of the indigenization of Buddhism in China and illuminates the ways this beloved deity has affected the lives of all Chinese people down the ages.
The most basic unit of the physical book is the page. It has determined the historical evolution of the book, the types of information communicated, and how the audience accesses that information. Unique and rewarding in both its scope and approach, The Future of the Page is a collection of essays that presents the best of recent critical theory on the history and future of the page and its enormous influence on Western thought and culture. Spanning the centuries between the earliest record of the page and current computerized conceptions of page-like entities, the essays examine the size of the page, its relative dimensions, materials, design, and display of information. The page is broadly defined, allowing the volume to explore topics ranging from medieval manuscripts to non-European alternatives to the page, Algonquin symbolic literacy, and hypertext. This thought-provoking collection will appeal to literary scholars, book historians, graphic designers, and those interested in the impact of evolving print technologies on intellectual and cultural life.
In this stimulating investigation, Gideon Freudenthal has linked social history with the history of science by formulating an interesting proposal: that the supposed influence of social theory may be seen as actual through its co herence with the process of formation of physical concepts. The reinterpre tation of the development of science in the seventeenth century, now widely influential, receives at Freudenthal's hand its most persuasive statement, most significantly because of his attention to the theoretical form which is charac teristic. of classical Newtonian mechanics. He pursues the sources of the parallels that may be noted between that mechanics and the dominant philosophical systems and social theories of the time; and in a fascinating development Freudenthal shows how a quite precise method - as he descriptively labels it, the 'analytic-synthetic method' - which underlay the Newtonian form of theoretical argument, was due to certain interpretive premisses concerning particle mechanics. If he is right, these depend upon a particular stage of con ceptual achievement in the theories of both society and nature; further, that the conceptual was generalized philosophically; but, strikingly, Freudenthal shows that this concept-formation itself was linked to the specific social relations of the times of Newton and Hobbes.
Browne's famous work, first published in 1902, was the essential text on literary history in Persian studies for many years. As an overview of Persian literature from the earliest times until Firdawsi, it continues to be a valuable reference. Out of print for some time, it is now reissued as a library edition, in facsimile to capture the feel of the original edition.
Revised versions of papers presented at the Nickle Conference, held in the Nickle Arts Museum of the University of Calgary, Oct. 19-23, 1981.
Of the great ancient civilizations, that of Persia is the least known and the most enigmatic. This book explores the formation of the first Persian Empire under the Achaemenid Persians. It brings together a multi-disciplinary view of ancient Iran in the first millennium BC and concentrates on the art, archaeology, history and religion of a geographical area far beyond the present borders of modern Iran in the period beginning just before the formation of the Persian empire in the middle of the 6th century up to its collapse following conquest by Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BC. Eminent scholars here give a critical approach to some of the traditional interpretations and discuss topics which help the reader towards a better understanding of the formation of the Persian empire. This is the first volume in the Idea of Iran series which will be a four-volume collection encompassing the history of that country.
This new study, drawing on the latest research, tells the story of the decline and fall of the pharaoh Akhenaten's religious revolution in the fourteenth century BC. Beginning at the regime's high-point in his Year 12, it traces the subsequent collapse that saw the deaths of many of the king's loved ones, his attempts to guarantee the revolution through co-rulers, and the last frenzied assault on the god Amun. The book then outlines the events of the subsequent five decades that saw the extinction of the royal line, an attempt to place a foreigner on Egypt's throne, and the accession of three army officers in turn. Among its conclusions are that the mother of Tutankhamun was none other than Nefertiti, and that the queen was joint-pharaoh in turn with both her husband Akhenaten and her son. As such, she was herself instrumental in beginning the return to orthodoxy, undoing her erstwhile husband's life-work before her own mysterious disappearance.
Certains des trésors de l’art perse ont été conservés au musée de l’Ermitage à Saint-Pétersbourg, et dans d’autres institutions culturelles de Moscou ou des anciennes républiques de l’Union soviétique. Pour la plupart, ils sont aujourd’hui disparus mais reproduits ici pour la première fois sous la forme de planches de couleurs. Depuis trois millénaires, cet art a conservé une unité certaine. Malgré les bouleversements politiques et religieux, il se caractérise par son raffinement, qu’il ait été produit par de simples artisans ou par des artistes de cour, en matière d’architecture, sculptures, fresques, miniatures, porcelaines, tissus ou même tapis.
Bringing together an international team of specialists, this volume considers the place of royal heirs within their families, their education and accommodation, their ability to overcome succession crises, the consequences of the death of an heir and finally the roles royal heirs played during the First World War.