This encyclopedia provides a broad, in-depth, and multidisciplinary look at the causes and effects of warfare between whites and Native Americans, encompassing nearly three centuries of history. • Entries written by over 50 leading scholars in the field • 25 charts • 26 maps • A glossary of terms
This provocative book asks whether or not the Native populations of North America experienced genocide. Drawing on examples such as the Sand Creek Massacre and the Long Walk of the Navajo, the author shows the diversity of Native American experiences postcontact and uncovers the complex realities of this difficult period in American history.
»Tüchtig, arbeitsam und diszipliniert«, so präsentierten die französischen und spanischen Kolonialbeamten die »deutschen« Siedler Louisianas in ihren frühen Briefen und Journalen. Andreas Hübner folgt den Spuren dieser »Mustermigranten« des 18. Jahrhunderts, die nur wenige Meilen flussaufwärts von New Orleans am Mississippi eine neue Heimat fanden - und bietet zugleich eine Einführung in die frühe Geschichte Louisianas. Basierend auf Ansätzen der historischen Migrationsforschung und der Kulturgeschichte erforscht er das Sprechen über die »Deutschen«, entschlüsselt die kolonialen Diskurse um das Deutschsein und liefert damit auch einen bemerkenswerten Beitrag zu aktuellen Debatten der Migrationspolitik.
This book is a one-stop reference resource for the vast variety of musical expressions of the First Peoples' cultures of North America, both past and present. • Provides print and Internet resources with each entry • Presents exclusive information derived from the personal research and fieldwork of the editors • Includes a timeline that highlights important developments in First Peoples' musical expressions • Supplies an index that allows users to easily look up all of the relevant information on a topic
Employing innovative research and unique interpretations, these essays provide a fresh perspective on Native American history by focusing on how Indians lived and helped shape each of the United States. • 50 chapters examine the role of Native Americans in the history and development of each state • Contributions from more than 30 distinguished native and nonnative scholars from around the world, each providing a unique perspective on the states and the native peoples who lived there both before and after statehood • A chronology of significant events in Native American history for each state from the pre-colonial period to the present • Extensive, interdisciplinary bibliographies on Native American history in each state
This new edition of Brogan's superb one-volume history - from early British colonisation to the Reagan years - captures an array of dynamic personalities and events. In a broad sweep of America's triumphant progress. Brogan explores the period leading to Independence from both the American and the British points of view, touching on permanent features of 'the American character' - both the good and the bad. He provides a masterly synthesis of all the latest research illustrating America's rapid growth from humble beginnings to global dominance.
This essential reference work enables a deeper understanding of contemporary challenges in the lives of American Indians and Alaskan Natives today, carefully reviewing their unique problems and proposing potential solutions. • Provides a current and comprehensive analysis of contemporary problems facing American Indians • Documents the challenges of American Indians, identifies how they are qualitatively different from those of other minority groups in the United States, and presents potential solutions • Evaluates the effectiveness of both proposed and implemented solutions to problems in American Indian culture • Written by experts on American Indian affairs, including many who have lived, worked, and taught in Indian country, and are American Indians themselves
This comprehensive title is among the first to extensively use newly released 2010 U.S. Census data to examine multiculturalism today and tomorrow in America. This distinction is important considering the following NPR report by Eyder Peralta: “Based on the first national numbers released by the Census Bureau, the AP reports that minorities account for 90 percent of the total U.S. growth since 2000, due to immigration and higher birth rates for Latinos.” According to John Logan, a Brown University sociologist who has analyzed most of the census figures, “The futures of most metropolitan areas in the country are contingent on how attractive they are to Hispanic and Asian populations.” Both non-Hispanic whites and blacks are getting older as a group. “These groups are tending to fade out,” he added. Another demographer, William H. Frey with the Brookings Institution, told The Washington Post that this has been a pivotal decade. “We’re pivoting from a white-black-dominated American population to one that is multiracial and multicultural.” Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia explores this pivotal moment and its ramifications with more than 900 signed entries not just providing a compilation of specific ethnic groups and their histories but also covering the full spectrum of issues flowing from the increasingly multicultural canvas that is America today. Pedagogical elements include an introduction, a thematic reader’s guide, a chronology of multicultural milestones, a glossary, a resource guide to key books, journals, and Internet sites, and an appendix of 2010 U.S. Census Data. Finally, the electronic version will be the only reference work on this topic to augment written entries with multimedia for today’s students, with 100 videos (with transcripts) from Getty Images and Video Vault, the Agence France Press, and Sky News, as reviewed by the media librarian of the Rutgers University Libraries, working in concert with the title’s editors.
In the summer of 1846, the Army of the West marched through Santa Fe, en route to invade and occupy the Western territories claimed by Mexico. Fueled by the new ideology of “Manifest Destiny,” this land grab would lead to a decades-long battle between the United States and the Navajos, the fiercely resistant rulers of a huge swath of mountainous desert wilderness.In Blood and Thunder, Hampton Sides gives us a magnificent history of the American conquest of the West. At the center of this sweeping tale is Kit Carson, the trapper, scout, and soldier whose adventures made him a legend. Sides shows us how this illiterate mountain man understood and respected the Western tribes better than any other American, yet willingly followed orders that would ultimately devastate the Navajo nation. Rich in detail and spanning more than three decades, this is an essential addition to our understanding of how the West was really won. From the Trade Paperback edition.
This work is the most comprehensive reference work on the War of 1812 yet published, offering a multidisciplinary treatment of course, causes, effects, and specific details of the War that provides both quick reference and in-depth analysis for readers from the high school level to scholars in the field. • 872 entries provide an unmatched scope and breadth of coverage • Over 150 primary-source documents in a separate volume, giving readers firsthand access to the way the War of 1812 unfolded and was experienced • Extensive bibliography and glossary provide additional resources and clarification of terminology
For four hundred years--from the first Spanish assaults against the Arawak people of Hispaniola in the 1490s to the U.S. Army's massacre of Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee in the 1890s--the indigenous inhabitants of North and South America endured an unending firestorm of violence. During that time the native population of the Western Hemisphere declined by as many as 100 million people. Indeed, as historian David E. Stannard argues in this stunning new book, the European and white American destruction of the native peoples of the Americas was the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world. Stannard begins with a portrait of the enormous richness and diversity of life in the Americas prior to Columbus's fateful voyage in 1492. He then follows the path of genocide from the Indies to Mexico and Central and South America, then north to Florida, Virginia, and New England, and finally out across the Great Plains and Southwest to California and the North Pacific Coast. Stannard reveals that wherever Europeans or white Americans went, the native people were caught between imported plagues and barbarous atrocities, typically resulting in the annihilation of 95 percent of their populations. What kind of people, he asks, do such horrendous things to others? His highly provocative answer: Christians. Digging deeply into ancient European and Christian attitudes toward sex, race, and war, he finds the cultural ground well prepared by the end of the Middle Ages for the centuries-long genocide campaign that Europeans and their descendants launched--and in places continue to wage--against the New World's original inhabitants. Advancing a thesis that is sure to create much controversy, Stannard contends that the perpetrators of the American Holocaust drew on the same ideological wellspring as did the later architects of the Nazi Holocaust. It is an ideology that remains dangerously alive today, he adds, and one that in recent years has surfaced in American justifications for large-scale military intervention in Southeast Asia and the Middle East. At once sweeping in scope and meticulously detailed, American Holocaust is a work of impassioned scholarship that is certain to ignite intense historical and moral debate.
An essential starting point for anyone wanting to learn about life in the largest empire in history, this two-volume work encapsulates the imperial experience from the sixteenth to the twenty-first centuries. • Provides primary sources that give voice to the people who ran, opposed, and were subjects of the British Empire • Consolidates the most up-to-date research from established and emerging scholars in the field in many countries and at many institutions • Includes a detailed introduction that succinctly puts the British Empire into historical context • Offers a chronology of events and episodes important to both the rise and fall of the British Empire • Provides a broad range of perspectives that focus not only on the white men who controlled the British Empire but also on the many people—such as women, indigenous peoples, poor Europeans, and Christian missionaries—who formed it • Avoids simplistic assessments of British imperialism as merely "good" or "bad," emanating an objectivity that enables readers to develop their own ideas about the nature of the empire
This hugely influential work marked a turning point in US history and culture, arguing that the nation’s expansion into the Great West was directly linked to its unique spirit: a rugged individualism forged at the juncture between civilization and wilderness, which – for better or worse – lies at the heart of American identity today. Throughout history, some books have changed the world. They have transformed the way we see ourselves – and each other. They have inspired debate, dissent, war and revolution. They have enlightened, outraged, provoked and comforted. They have enriched lives – and destroyed them. Now Penguin brings you the works of the great thinkers, pioneers, radicals and visionaries whose ideas shook civilization and helped make us who we are.
This user-friendly encyclopedia comprises a wide array of accessible yet detailed entries that address the military, social, political, cultural, and economic aspects of the Mexican-American War.
Updated to 2007, including Canada’s war on terrorism. Is Canada really “a peaceable kingdom” with “an unmilitary people”? Nonsense, says Desmond Morton. This is a country that has been shaped, divided, and transformed by war — there is no greater influence in Canadian history, recent or remote. From the shrewd tactics of Canada’s First Nations to our troubled involvement in Somalia, from the Plains of Abraham to the deserts of Afghanistan, Morton examines our centuries-old relationship to war and its consequences. This updated edition also includes a new chapter on Canada’s place in the war on terrorism. A Military History of Canada is an engaging and informative chronicle of Canada at war, from one of the country’s finest historians. From the Trade Paperback edition.
In this sweeping new biography, Colin Calloway uses the prism of George Washington's life to bring focus to the great Native leaders of his time--Shingas, Tanaghrisson, Bloody Fellow, Joseph Brant, Red Jacket, Little Turtle--and the tribes they represented: the Iroquois Confederacy, Lenape, Miami, Creek, Delaware; in the process, he returns them to their rightful place in the story of America's founding. The Indian World of George Washington spans decades of Native American leaders' interactions with Washington, from his early days as surveyor of Indian lands, to his military career against both the French and the British, to his presidency, when he dealt with Native Americans as a head of state would with a foreign power, using every means of diplomacy and persuasion to fulfill the new republic's destiny by appropriating their land. By the end of his life, Washington knew more than anyone else in America about the frontier and its significance to the future of his country. The Indian World of George Washington offers a fresh portrait of the most revered American and the Native Americans whose story has been only partially told. Calloway's biography invites us to look again at the history of America's beginnings and see the country in a whole new light.
The impact of war on American society has been extensive throughout our nation's history. War has transformed economic patterns, government policy, public sentiments, social trends and cultural expression. SAGE Reference is proud to announce the Encyclopedia of War and American Society. This Encyclopedia is a comprehensive, highly-credentialed multidisciplinary historical work that examines the numerous ways wars affect societies. The three volumes cover a wide range of general thematic categories, issues, and topics that address not only the geopolitical effects of war, but also show how the U.S. engagement in national and international conflicts has affected the social and cultural arena. Key Features Explores and analyzes three types of effects of war—direct effects, interactive relationships, and indirect effects—to illustrate the range of connections between war and American society Probes the correlations between our wartime expeditions and the experiences of the greater American society not limited to just the war years but also demonstrates how the wartime event impacted society after the conflicts ended Offers readers a host of documents including passages from letters, diaries, autobiographies, official documents, novels, poems, songs, and cartoons, as well as images, graphs, and a number of tables of relevant data, surveys, and public opinion polls to extend their research capabilities Concentrates mostly on the last 100 years to give more coverage on this often neglected wartime era Key Themes Arts and Culture Civil-Military Relations Economy and Labor Education (both military and civilian) Environment and Health Journalism and Media Law and Justice Military Leaders and Figures Planning, Command and Control Race, Gender, and Ethnicity Religion Science and Technology Veterans' Issues and Experiences The Wars themselves and their civilian and military leaders The Encyclopedia of War and American Society is a must-have reference for all academic libraries as well as a welcome addition to any social science reference collection.
Confronting insurgent violence in Iraq and Afghanistan, the U.S. military has recognized the need to “re-learn” counterinsurgency. But how has the Department of Defense with its mixed efforts responded to this new strategic environment? Has it learned anything from past failures? In The New Counterinsurgency Era, David Ucko examines DoD’s institutional obstacles and initially slow response to a changing strategic reality. Ucko also suggests how the military can better prepare for the unique challenges of modern warfare, where it is charged with everything from providing security to supporting reconstruction to establishing basic governance—all while stabilizing conquered territory and engaging with local populations. After briefly surveying the history of American counterinsurgency operations, Ucko focuses on measures the military has taken since 2001 to relearn old lessons about counterinsurgency, to improve its ability to conduct stability operations, to change the institutional bias against counterinsurgency, and to account for successes gained from the learning process. Given the effectiveness of insurgent tactics, the frequency of operations aimed at building local capacity, and the danger of ungoverned spaces acting as havens for hostile groups, the military must acquire new skills to confront irregular threats in future wars. Ucko clearly shows that the opportunity to come to grips with counterinsurgency is matched in magnitude only by the cost of failing to do so.
Mission Creep: The Militarization of US Foreign Policy? examines the question of whether the US Department of Defense (DOD) has assumed too large a role in influencing and implementing US foreign policy. After the Cold War, and accelerating after September 11, the United States has drawn upon the enormous resources of DOD in adjusting to the new global environment and challenges arising from terrorism, Islamic radicalism, insurgencies, ethnic conflicts, and failed states. Contributors investigate and provide different perspectives on the extent to which military leaders and DOD have increased their influence and involvement in areas such as foreign aid, development, diplomacy, policy debates, and covert operations. These developments are set in historical and institutional context, as contributors explore the various causes for this institutional imbalance. The book concludes that there has been a militarization of US foreign policy while it explores the institutional and political causes and their implications. “Militarization” as it is used in this book does not mean that generals directly challenge civilian control over policy; rather it entails a subtle phenomenon wherein the military increasingly becomes the primary actor and face of US policy abroad. Mission Creep’s assessment and policy recommendations about how to rebalance the role of civilian agencies in foreign policy decision making and implementation will interest scholars and students of US foreign policy, defense policy, and security studies, as well as policy practitioners interested in the limits and extents of militarization.
Experienced authors with over 35 years combined teaching and working in field use fundamental principles and sources of the law of armed conflict to guide discussion about contemporary and future concerns. Students can gain a solid foundation in the law and develop the tools they need to analyze complex legal problems. International Law and Armed Conflict shows how the law informs operational and policy decision-making. Placing the law of armed conflict in context with related fields, such as human rights law and national security law, the text provides a complete framework for understanding legal paradigms during and after conflict. Features: experienced authors --more than 35 years combined teaching and working in the military, think tanks, and academia uses fundamental principles and sources of the law to inform discussion on contemporary and future questions gives a solid foundation in the law provides analytical tools needed to analyze complex legal situations and problems shows how the law impacts operational and policy decision-making ties the law of armed conflict to related fields connects human rights law and national security law provides a framework for understanding legal paradigms during and after conflict offers innovative tools and materials supports faculty teaching a stand-alone class supports a broader class on a range of related topics
A Companion to American Indian History captures the thematic breadth of Native American history over the last forty years. Twenty-five original essays by leading scholars in the field, both American Indian and non-American Indian, bring an exciting modern perspective to Native American histories that were at one time related exclusively by Euro-American settlers. Contains 25 original essays by leading experts in Native American history. Covers the breadth of American Indian history, including contacts with settlers, religion, family, economy, law, education, gender issues, and culture. Surveys and evaluates the best scholarship on every important era and topic. Summarizes current debates and anticipates future concerns.
"A wonderful, splendid book--a book that should be ready by every American, student or otherwise, who wants to understand his country, its true history, and its hope for the future." --Howard Fast With a new introduction by Anthony Arnove, this edition of the classic national bestseller chronicles American history from the bottom up, throwing out the official narrative taught in schools—with its emphasis on great men in high places—to focus on the street, the home and the workplace. Known for its lively, clear prose as well as its scholarly research, A People's History of the United States is the only volume to tell America's story from the point of view of—and in the words of—America's women, factory workers, African-Americans, Native Americans, the working poor, and immigrant laborers. As historian Howard Zinn shows, many of our country's greatest battles—the fights for a fair wage, an eight-hour workday, child-labor laws, health and safety standards, universal suffrage, women's rights, racial equality—were carried out at the grassroots level, against bloody resistance. Covering Christopher Columbus's arrival through President Clinton's first term, A People's History of the United States features insightful analysis of the most important events in our history.