In this candid and gripping account, President George W. Bush describes the critical decisions that shaped his presidency and personal life. George W. Bush served as president of the United States during eight of the most consequential years in American history. The decisions that reached his desk impacted people around the world and defined the times in which we live. Decision Points brings readers inside the Texas governor’s mansion on the night of the 2000 election, aboard Air Force One during the harrowing hours after the attacks of September 11, 2001, into the Situation Room moments before the start of the war in Iraq, and behind the scenes at the White House for many other historic presidential decisions. For the first time, we learn President Bush’s perspective and insights on: His decision to quit drinking and the journey that led him to his Christian faith The selection of the vice president, secretary of defense, secretary of state, Supreme Court justices, and other key officials His relationships with his wife, daughters, and parents, including heartfelt letters between the president and his father on the eve of the Iraq War His administration’s counterterrorism programs, including the CIA’s enhanced interrogations and the Terrorist Surveillance Program Why the worst moment of the presidency was hearing accusations that race played a role in the federal government’s response to Hurricane Katrina, and a critical assessment of what he would have done differently during the crisis His deep concern that Iraq could turn into a defeat costlier than Vietnam, and how he decided to defy public opinion by ordering the troop surge His legislative achievements, including tax cuts and reforming education and Medicare, as well as his setbacks, including Social Security and immigration reform The relationships he forged with other world leaders, including an honest assessment of those he did and didn’t trust Why the failure to bring Osama bin Laden to justice ranks as his biggest disappointment and why his success in denying the terrorists their fondest wish—attacking America again—is among his proudest achievements A groundbreaking new brand of presidential memoir, Decision Points will captivate supporters, surprise critics, and change perspectives on eight remarkable years in American history—and on the man at the center of events. From the Hardcover edition.
Examining the major academic and policy debates over China’s rise and related policy issues, this book looks into the motivations and intentions of a rising China. Most of the scholarly works on China’s rise approach the question at a structural level by looking at the international system and the systemic impact on China’s foreign policy. Traditional Realist theorists define China as a revisionist power eager to address wrongs done to them in history, whilst some cultural and historical analyses attest that China’s strategic culture has been offensive despite its weak material capability. Huiyun Feng’s path-breaking contribution to the debate tests these rival hypotheses by examining systematically the beliefs of contemporary Chinese leaders and their strategic interactions with other states since 1949 when the communist regime came to power. The focus is on tracing the historical roots of Chinese strategic culture and its links to the decision-making of six key Chinese leaders via their belief systems. Chinese Strategic Culture will be of interest to students of Chinese politics, foreign policy, strategic theory and international relations in general.
This book expounds the theory of international arbitration law. It explains in easily accessible terms all the fundamentals of arbitration, from separability of the arbitration agreement to competence-competence over procedural autonomy, finality of the award, and many other concepts. It does so with a focus on international arbitration law and jurisprudence in Switzerland, a global leader in the field. With a broader reach than a commentary of Chapter 12 of the Swiss Private International Law Act, the discussion contains numerous references to comparative law and its developments in addition to an extensive review of the practice of international tribunals. Written by two well-known specialists - Professor Kaufmann-Kohler being one of the leading arbitrators worldwide and Professor Rigozzi one of the foremost experts in sports arbitration - the work reflects many years of experience in managing arbitral proceedings involving commercial, investment, and sports disputes. This expertise is the basis for the solutions proposed to resolve the many practical issues that may arise in the course of an arbitration. It also informs the discussion of the arbitration rules addressed in the book, from the ICC Arbitration Rules to the Swiss Rules of International Arbitration, the CAS Code, and the UNCITRAL Rules. While the book covers commercial and sports arbitrations primarily, it also applies to investment arbitrations conducted under rules other than the ICSID framework.
Understanding Torture surveys the massive literature surrounding torture, arguing that, once properly understood, there can be no defense of torture in any circumstances.
This third edition of one of the leading textbooks on world trade law offers what is, in a number of ways, a unique perspective on this important subject. Combining the best aspects of both casebook and treatise, this comprehensive textbook provides detailed explanations and analysis of the law to help understand the issues as well as case extracts to offer a flavour of the judicial reasoning of trade adjudicators. Moreover, the book is truly global in outlook, being equally useful for students of international trade law in the UK, Europe, the US, Asia and elsewhere around the world. This updated edition includes in-depth discussions of the most recent developments in international trade jurisprudence, setting out important precedents that help establish the boundaries between global trade rules and domestic national autonomy. In this era, when political developments place even more importance on international trade, it will be essential reading for all students, scholars and practitioners in the field.
This title was first published in 2003. This text explains how states conduct their external economic relations as the 21st century begins: how they make decisions domestically; how they negotiate internationally; and how these processes interact. It documents the transformation of economic diplomacy in response to the end of the Cold War, the advance of globalisation and the terrorist attacks of September 2001 and illustrates the growing influence of non-state actors like private business and civil society. The book integrates a full academic and theoretical analysis with the experience of senior practitioners in economic diplomacy and is based on the authors' work in the LSE's graduate programme on "The Politics of the World Economy".
This publication contains four papers: 'Rethinking multilateral negotiations: disamament as humanitarian action'; 'Modelling armed violence: a tool for humanitarina dialogue in disarmament and arms control'; 'Deconstructing disarmament: the challenge of making the disarmament and arms control machinery responsive to the humanitarian imperative'; 'A comparisonbetween arms control and other multilateral negotiation processes'.
International Law in the U.S. Legal System provides a wide-ranging overview of how international law intersects with the domestic legal system within the United States, and points out various unresolved issues and areas of controversy. Curtis Bradley covers all of the principal forms of international law: treaties, decisions and orders of international institutions, customary international law, and jus cogens norms. He also explores a number of issues that are implicated by the intersection of U.S. law and international law, such as foreign sovereign immunity, international human rights litigation, war powers, extradition, and extraterritoriality. This book highlights recent decisions and events relating to the topic (including decisions and events arising out of the war on terrorism), while also taking into account relevant historical materials, including materials relating to the U.S. Constitutional founding. Written by one of the most cited international law scholars in the United States, the book is a resource for lawyers, law students, legal scholars, and judges from around the world.
The European Union has established itself as a significant international legal actor. Understanding the EU's actions on the international plane requires an understanding of its constantly evolving constitutional and legal framework. This book presents the law of EU external relations in a concise and accessible manner for students, practitioners, and academics in the field. It combines chapters on the general basis of the Union's external action and its relation to international law with chapters which further explore the law and practice of the EU in the specialized fields of external action such as the common commercial policy, development cooperation, cooperation with third countries, humanitarian aid, the enlargement and neighbourhood policies, the external environmental policy, and the common foreign and security policy, as well as a chapter specifically dedicated to EU sanctions and countermeasures. Carefully selected primary documents are accompanied with analytic commentary on the issues they raise and their significance for the overall structure of EU external relations law. The primary materials selected include many important legal documents that are hard to find elsewhere but give a vital insight into the operation of EU external relations law in practice.
Wiley's new Handbook of Decision Making is a vital reference text for all students and professionals of management, organization and decision making. The handbook offers a wide range of theoretical and empirical approaches to the understanding of organizational and strategic decisions. Contributors are internationally known experts drawn from North America, Canada and Europe who have spent many years in the study of decision making, and decision making relevant topics. We believe the handbook will become a tour de force in the understanding decision making, offering a wide variety of perspectives, topics, and summative understanding of the field. Chapters in the Handbook were prepared by the leading experts in their field and include cutting edge empirical, theoretical, and review chapters. The chapters bring together for the first time a critical mass of writing on decision making as an organizational and research activity. The Editors are two of the leading international experts in decision making and contribute to the Handbook with five original Chapters that offer an appraisal of the field and suggestions for research, as well as the current status of decision making practice and suggestion for improvement.
Packed with current, real-world examples, ETHICAL DILEMMAS AND DECISIONS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE, 9th Edition offers comprehensive, balanced, and practical coverage of ethics across all three arms of the criminal justice system: the police, the courts, and corrections. Readers find coverage of the philosophical principles and theories that are the foundation of ethical decision-making, as well as the latest challenges and issues in criminal justice -- the militarization of the police, mass imprisonment, wrongful convictions, the misuse of power by elected officials and/or other public servants, and more. The text provides a wealth of hands-on exercises as well as such insightful features as In the News boxes spotlighting recent examples of misconduct. For those studying or contemplating a career in criminal justice, real-life cases and situations demonstrate the significance of ethics in today’s criminal justice arena. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
This book examines Israel’s relationship and political decision-making process towards the Occupied Territories from the aftermath of the Six Day War to the Labour Party’s electoral defeat in 1977. The period represents the first decade of Israel’s occupation of the Occupied Territories and the last decade in which the Labour Party was Israel’s most dominant political force. Arguing that the successive Israeli governments headed by the Labour Party lacked a strategic policy towards the Occupied Territories to address the country’s objectives and needs, this book demonstrates the detrimental effect this had on Israel, on the Middle East in general, and on the Palestinian people in particular. In addressing key aspects of decision making pathologies, this book raises issues which remain important features of Israeli politics today and an analysis relevant for political decision making worldwide.
Principles of International Criminal Law has become one of the most influential textbooks in the field of international criminal justice. It offers a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the foundations and general principles of substantive international criminal law, including thorough discussion of its core crimes. It provides a detailed understanding of the general principles, sources, and evolution of international criminal law, demonstrating how it has developed, and how its application has changed. After establishing the general principles, the book assesses the four key international crimes as defined by the statute of the International Criminal Court: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. This new edition revises and updates work with developments in international criminal justice since 2009. It includes new material on the principle of culpability as one of the fundamental principles of international criminal law, the notion of terrorism as a crime under international law, the concept of direct participation in hostilities, the problem of so-called unlawful combatants, and the issue of targeted killings. The book retains its highly-acclaimed systematic approach and consistent methodology, making the book essential reading for both students and scholars of international criminal law, as well as for practitioners and judges working in the field.
This unique assessment of the presidency of George W. Bush reviews the successes and failures of his first and second terms.
In Calvin's Company of Pastors, Scott Manetsch examines the pastoral theology and practical ministry activities of Geneva's reformed ministers from the time of Calvin's arrival in Geneva until the beginning of the seventeenth century. During these seven decades, more than 130 men were enrolled in Geneva's Venerable Company of Pastors (as it was called), including notable reformed leaders such as Pierre Viret, Theodore Beza, Simon Goulart, Lambert Daneau, and Jean Diodati. Aside from these better-known epigones, Geneva's pastors from this period remain hidden from view, cloaked in Calvin's long shadow, even though they played a strategic role in preserving and reshaping Calvin's pastoral legacy. Making extensive use of archival materials, published sermons, catechisms, prayer books, personal correspondence, and theological writings, Manetsch offers an engaging and vivid portrait of pastoral life in sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century Geneva, exploring the manner in which Geneva's ministers conceived of their pastoral office and performed their daily responsibilities of preaching, public worship, moral discipline, catechesis, administering the sacraments, and pastoral care. Manetsch demonstrates that Calvin and his colleagues were much more than ivory tower theologians or "quasi-agents of the state," concerned primarily with dispensing theological information to their congregations or enforcing magisterial authority. Rather, they saw themselves as spiritual shepherds of Christ's Church, and this self-understanding shaped to a significant degree their daily work as pastors and preachers.
The war in Iraq . . . No bid contracts awarded to Halliburton . . . Hurricane Katrina . . . The CIA leak investigation . . . The story gets worse and worse. The evidence is glaring. George W. Bush's record as a president is abysmal. And it's time to impeach him. The Case for Impeachment lays out the reasons why in a straightforward, letter-of-the-law manner. Mixing the cold, hard facts with the lies and deceptions of this administration, The Case for Impeachment is a serious consideration of Bush's high crimes and misdemeanors while in office. This important and timely book will serve as a rallying cry for all those fed up with George W. Bush's abuses of power. It's time for the American people and Congress to act. With so much at stake, we have a president whose administration stands out in its criminality and disdain for the rule of law. The Case for Impeachment explains the legal history and grounds for impeaching George W. Bush and brings forth more than a half dozen articles of impeachment the likes of: *Lying and inducing Congress and the American people into an unjust war. *Allowing his friends and business cronies to profiteer off the war in Iraq. *Authorizing torture and rendition of prisoners of war and suspected terrorists--a complete violation of the Geneva Conventions, a treaty the U.S. has signed and is therefore part of our law. *Stripping American citizens of their Constitutional rights--holding people with no charge, wiretapping them illegally, offering them no trial, and never allowing them to face their accusers. *Failing in almost every way possible to defend the homeland and our borders. Hard hitting and persuasive in its argument, The Case for Impeachment will be one of the most talked-about political books for the pathetic remainder of the Bush Presidency.
Established as one of the main sources for the study of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, this volume provides an article-by-article analysis of the Statute; the detailed analysis draws upon relevant case law from the Court itself, as well as from other international and national criminal tribunals, academic commentary, and related instruments such as the Elements of Crimes, the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, and the Relationship Agreement with the United Nations. Each of the 128 articles is accompanied by an overview of the drafting history as well as a bibliography of academic literature relevant to the provision. Written by a single author, the Commentary avoids duplication and inconsistency, providing a comprehensive presentation to assist those who must understand, interpret, and apply the complex provisions of the Rome Statute.This volume has been well-received in the academic community and has become a trusted reference for those who work at the Court, even judges. The fully updated second edition of The International Criminal Court incorporates new developments in the law, including discussions of recent judicial activity and the amendments to the Rome Statute adopted at the Kampala conference.
In U.S. Military Operations: Law, Policy, and Practice, a distinguished group of military experts comprehensively analyze how the law is applied during military operations on and off the battlefield. Subject matter experts offer a unique insiders perspective on how the law is actually implemented in a wide swath of military activities, such as how the law of war applies in the context of multi-state coalition forces, and whether non-governmental organizations involved in quasi-military operations are subject to the same law. The book goes on to consider whether U.S. Constitutional 4th Amendment protections apply to the military's cyber-defense measures, how the law guides targeting decisions, and whether United Nations mandates constitute binding rules of international humanitarian law. Other areas of focus include how the United States interacts with the International Committee of the Red Cross regarding its international legal obligations, and how courts should approach civil claims based on war-related torts. This book also answers questions regarding how the law of armed conflict applies to such extra-conflict acts as intercepting pirates and providing humanitarian relief to civilians in occupied territory.
Facts101 is your complete guide to Government in America, People, Politics, and Policy, Brief Edition. In this book, you will learn topics such as Federalism, Civil Liberties and Public Policy, Civil Rights and Public Policy, and Public Opinion and Political Action plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
Since the second edition of this commentary on the Charter of the United Nations was published, the text of the Charter may not have changed but the world has. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have had a lasting impact on international law and the Commentary has been fully updated to take their impact into account. The new edition has been completely revised and features a completely new chapter on UN reform, analyzing the effect of reforms which have already beenimplemented and examining why other proposals for reform have failed. It will assess how these proposals could be improved, with a particular focus on the Security Council. This new edition also includes coverage of the creation of the Human Rights Council and the impact of the Responsibility toProtect doctrine.This is the authoritative, article-by-article account of the legislative history, interpretation, and practical application of each and every Charter provision. Written by a team of distinguished scholars and practitioners, this book combines academic research with the insights of practice, and is an indispensable work of reference for all those interested in the UN.The Commentary will be crucial in providing new directions for the development of international law and the United Nations in thetwenty-first century.
North American law has been transformed in ways unimaginable before 9/11. Laws now authorize and courts have condoned indefinite detention without charge based on secret evidence, mass secret surveillance, and targeted killing of US citizens, suggesting a shift in the cultural currency of a liberal form of legality to authoritarian legality. The Harbinger Theory demonstrates that extreme measures have been consistently embraced in politics, scholarship, and public opinion, not in terms of a general fear of the greater threat that terrorism now poses, but a more specific belief that 9/11 was the harbinger of a new order of terror, giving rise to the likelihood of an attack on the same scale as 9/11 or greater in the near future, involving thousands of casualties and possibly weapons of mass destruction. It explains how the harbinger theory shapes debates about rights and security by virtue of rhetorical strategies on the part of political leaders and security experts, and in works of popular culture, in which the theory is often invoked as a self-evident truth, without the need for supporting evidence or authority. It also reveals how liberal advocates tend to be deferential to the theory, aiding its deeper entrenchment through the absence of a prominent public critique of it. In a unique overview of a range of skeptical evidence about the likelihood of mass terror involving WMD or conventional means, this book contends that a potentially more effective basis for reform advocacy is not to dismiss overstated threat claims as implausible or psychologically grounded, but to challenge the harbinger theory directly through the use of contrary evidence.
Cyber weapons and cyber warfare have become one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyber weapons can imperil economic, political, and military systems by a single act, or by multifaceted orders of effect, with wide-ranging potential consequences. Unlike past forms of warfare circumscribed by centuries of just war tradition and Law of Armed Conflict prohibitions, cyber warfare occupies a particularly ambiguous status in the conventions of the laws of war. Furthermore, cyber attacks put immense pressure on conventional notions of sovereignty, and the moral and legal doctrines that were developed to regulate them. This book, written by an unrivalled set of experts, assists in proactively addressing the ethical and legal issues that surround cyber warfare by considering, first, whether the Laws of Armed Conflict apply to cyberspace just as they do to traditional warfare, and second, the ethical position of cyber warfare against the background of our generally recognized moral traditions in armed conflict. The book explores these moral and legal issues in three categories. First, it addresses foundational questions regarding cyber attacks. What are they and what does it mean to talk about a cyber war? The book presents alternative views concerning whether the laws of war should apply, or whether transnational criminal law or some other peacetime framework is more appropriate, or if there is a tipping point that enables the laws of war to be used. Secondly, it examines the key principles of jus in bello to determine how they might be applied to cyber-conflicts, in particular those of proportionality and necessity. It also investigates the distinction between civilian and combatant in this context, and studies the level of causation necessary to elicit a response, looking at the notion of a 'proximate cause'. Finally, it analyses the specific operational realities implicated by particular regulatory regimes. This book is unmissable reading for anyone interested in the impact of cyber warfare on international law and the laws of war.
Developing countries have a major stake in the outcome of trade negotiations conducted under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO). 'Agriculture and the WTO: Creating a Trading System for Development' explores the key issues and options in agricultural trade liberalization from the perspective of these developing countries. Leading experts in trade and agriculture from both developed and developing countries provide key research findings and policy analyses on a range of issues that includes market access, domestic support, export competition, quota administration methods, food security, biotechnology, intellectual property rights, and agricultural trade under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. Material is covered in summary and in comprehensive detail with supporting data, a substantial bibliography, and listings of online resources. This book will be of interest to policymakers and analysts in the fields of development economics and commodities pricing and trade.
Follows the paper trail of torture memos that led to abuses at Guantanamo, in Afghanistan, and in Iraq
The United Nations Documents Index provides information on documents and publications issued by United Nations offices worldwide. The information is presented in nine sections covering the areas of documents and publications; official records; sales publications; United Nations maps included in UN documents; United Nations sheet maps; United Nations document series symbols; author index; title index and subject index. The index is a two part set.
'Peace' is often simplistically assumed to be war's opposite, and as such is not examined closely or critically idealized in the literature of peace studies, its crucial role in the justification of war is often overlooked. Starting from a critical view that the value of 'restoring peace' or 'keeping peace' is, and has been, regularly used as a pretext for military intervention, this book traces the conceptual history of peace in nineteenth century legal and political practice. It explores the role of the value of peace in shaping the public rhetoric and legitimizing action in general international relations, international law, international trade, colonialism, and armed conflict. Departing from the assumption that there is no peace as such, nor can there be, it examines the contradictory visions of peace that arise from conflict. These conflicting and antagonistic visions of peace are each linked to a set of motivations and interests as well as to a certain vision of legitimacy within the international realm. Each of them inevitably conveys the image of a specific enemy that has to be crushed in order to peace being installed. This book highlights the contradictions and paradoxes in nineteenth century discourses and practices of peace, particularly in Europe.
Following the end of the Cold War and in the context of globalization, this book examines the extent to which member states dominate decision making in international organizations and whether non-state actors, for example non-governmental organizations and multinational corporations, are influential. The authors assess the new patterns of decision-making to determine whether they are relatively open or closed privileged networks. The organizations examined include the Council of Europe, the United Nations, the EU, G8, the World Trade Organization, International Maritime Organizations, the World Health Organization and the OECD.
A Doody's Core Title 2012 New applications of echocardiography, nuclear magnetic resonance, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and cardiac computed tomography are rapidly developing and it is imperative that trainees and practitioners alike remain up to date in the latest developments. It is becoming increasingly difficult to remain abreast of these advances in each individual modality and thus it is no longer practical to focus on one at a time. In addition, training guidelines are changing and multimodality training has become the norm. Multimodality Imaging in Cardiovascular Medicine presents a clear and in-depth review of the available technologies and evidence supporting their appropriate clinical applications. Hundreds of outstanding images are included to support and augment the discussions from the leading experts in each modality. For maximum clinical value, rather than organize the content by imaging modality, the book is organized by disease so that the reader can utilize the book in real-time problem solving and decision making in daily clinical practice. Features of Multimodality Imaging in Cardiovascular Medicine Include More than 350 multimodality imaging examples of cardiovascular pathophysiology Corresponding text places the images into context at the interface with patient care State-of-the-art chapters contributed by the leading imaging experts
A 2010 IOM report, Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World, found that not only is it possible to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and related chronic diseases in developing countries, but also that such a reduction will be critical to achieving global health and development goals. As part a series of follow-up activities to the 2010 report, the IOM held a workshop that aimed to identify what is needed to create tools for country-led planning of effective, efficient, and equitable provision of chronic disease control programs.
On 2 January 1988, Canada and the United States signed what was then the most comprehensive free trade agreeement the world had ever seen. This book is the story of those FTA negotiations, the preparations for and conduct of the negotiations, as well as the ideas and issues behind them. From their unique perspective as participants, Michael Hart, Bill Dymond, and Colin Robertson capture the drama and the personalities involved in the long struggle to make a free trade deal. They describe the extensive consultations, the turf-fighting among insiders, the innate caution of both politicians and bureaucrats, and the need to cultivate powerful constituencies in order to overcome the inertia of conventional wisdom.
For years the European Union has been looked on as a potential model for cosmopolitan governance, and enjoyed considerable influence on the global stage. The EU has a uniquely strong and legally binding mission statement to pursue international relations on a multilateral basis, founded on the progressive development of international law. The political vision was for the EU to export its values of the rule of law and sophisticated governance mechanisms to the international sphere. Globalization and the financial crisis have starkly illustrated the limits of this vision, and the EU's dependence on global forces partially beyond the control of traditional provinces of law. This book takes stock of the EU's role in global governance. It asks: to what extent can and does the EU shape and influence the on-going re-ordering of legal processes, principles, and institutions of global governance, in line with its optimistic mission statement? With this ambitious remit it covers the legal-institutional and substantive aspects of global security, trade, environmental, financial, and social governance. Across these topics 23 contributors have taken the central question of the extent of the EU's influence on global governance, providing a broad view across the key areas as well as a detailed analysis of each. Through comparison and direct engagement with each other, the different chapters provide a distinctive contribution to legal scholarship on global governance, from a European perspective.
Ever since Eve tempted Adam with her apple, women have been regarded as a corrupting and destructive force. The very idea that women can be used as interrogation tools, as evidenced in the infamous Abu Ghraib torture photos, plays on age-old fears of women as sexually threatening weapons, and therefore the literal explosion of women onto the war scene should come as no surprise. From the female soldiers involved in Abu Ghraib to Palestinian women suicide bombers, women and their bodies have become powerful weapons in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. In Women as Weapons of War, Kelly Oliver reveals how the media and the administration frequently use metaphors of weaponry to describe women and female sexuality and forge a deliberate link between notions of vulnerability and images of violence. Focusing specifically on the U.S. campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, Oliver analyzes contemporary discourse surrounding women, sex, and gender and the use of women to justify America's decision to go to war. For example, the administration's call to liberate "women of cover," suggesting a woman's right to bare arms is a sign of freedom and progress. Oliver also considers what forms of cultural meaning, or lack of meaning, could cause both the guiltlessness demonstrated by female soldiers at Abu Ghraib and the profound commitment to death made by suicide bombers. She examines the pleasure taken in violence and the passion for death exhibited by these women and what kind of contexts created them. In conclusion, Oliver diagnoses our cultural fascination with sex, violence, and death and its relationship with live news coverage and embedded reporting, which naturalizes horrific events and stymies critical reflection. This process, she argues, further compromises the borders between fantasy and reality, fueling a kind of paranoid patriotism that results in extreme forms of violence.
This book analyzes the foreign policy decision-making processes of Presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama during military intervention by way of contemporary foreign policy decision-making models (FPDMs).
Since its publication in 1984, Chants Democratic has endured as a classic narrative on labor and the rise of American democracy. In it, Sean Wilentz explores the dramatic social and intellectual changes that accompanied early industrialization in New York. He provides a panoramic chronicle of New York City's labor strife, social movements, and political turmoil in the eras of Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson. Twenty years after its initial publication, Wilentz has added a new preface that takes stock of his own thinking, then and now, about New York City and the rise of the American working class.
Like many American towns, Geneva changed dramatically in the mid–20th century. Geneva: 1940–1970 examines events that influenced the city, among them the influx of sailors and workers at the nearby Sampson Naval Training Station during World War II and the construction of the Routes 5 and 20 bypass in the 1950s. Many factories ceased operation during this time, and downtown businesses began feeling pressure from a new shopping plaza and stores on the edge of town. The book also captures the social life of the community and notable people who visited Geneva, such as Bobby Kennedy and Jane Russell, and those who grew up here, such as legendary jazz bassist Scott LaFaro.
Contents: (1) Current Status (as of '07); Critics¿ Views; Applicable Law; (2) The Law of War: Characterizing the Conflict; Authority to Detain during an Internat. Armed Conflict; POWs; Civilian Detainees; Unlawful Belligerents; Interp. of GPW Article 4; GPW Art. 4A(1): Does Al Qaeda Form ¿Part of¿ the Armed Forces of a Party to the Conflict?; GPW Art. 4A(2): Does Al Qaeda ¿Belong to¿ a Party to the Conflict?; The Four Criteria; Determining Status under GPW Art. 5; Detention in Non-Internat. Armed Conflicts; (3) Treat. of Detainees at Guantánamo: Interrogation; Trial and Punishment; POWs; Civilians; Unlawful Belligerents; Security Measures; Repatriation; Right to Redress; (4) Congress¿s Role: Detainee Treatment Act of '05; Military Commissions Act of '06.
Introduction This book includes terms of reference and offers an augmented volume of relevant work initiated within the comprehensive concept of “Knowledge Management and Risk Governance”. The latter stood for the initial title of an ad-hoc meeting held in Ascona, Switzerland, organized by the Technological Risk Management Unit of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC) and the KOVERS Centre of Excellence in Risk and Safety Sciences of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich. Background Risk governance, in addition to the continuous interest of researchers, has recently attracted the attention of policy-makers and the media and the concern of the public. New and emerging risks in various fields and a number of risk-related issues increased the public interest and prompted for a new framework in dealing with risks. The Conference on Science and Governance organized by the European Commission in October 2000 is one of the international forums addressing this issue. Other recent events such as the establishment of the International Risk Governance Council outline the importance of the governance concept in relation to that of risk management (see www.irgc.org). At the same time noticeable progress has been made in Information Technologies and Decision Support, passing from the process of information PREFACE xvi to the process of knowledge. In this context new tools and methods became available, whose application in risk management may be beneficial.
Underground – the way to the future was the motto of the World Tunnel Congress 2013 in Geneva, Switzerland. The use of underground space has gained importance during the last years due to the tremendous global urbanization, the high demand on transportation capacities and energy production. All this result in a wider range of use of underground space: besides the traditional road, railway, metro and utility tunnels, more and more other functionalities of modern life are placed under ground in order to free the surface for other uses. The 300 papers of the present book cover important aspects of modern underground infrastructures: Development and use of underground space; project planning and implementation (construction management, risk control, cost estimation and scheduling, contracting practices); design and analysis methods and considerations; construction technology developments; tunnel operation (safety, maintenance, rehabilitation and repair); case histories (learning from failures, long deep tunnels, underground construction for hydropower). Underground – the way to the future will be invaluable to specialists, contractors and design engineers in underground planning, construction and tunnelling worldwide, and to academics interested in underground and geotechnical engineering.