The United Nations Democracy Agenda is a critical, conceptual-historical analysis of democracy at the United Nations, detailed in four 'visions' of democracy: civilization, elections, governance and developmental democracy. "I know it when I see it" were the famous words of US Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart on defining obscenity. It is with the same conviction and (un)certainty with which liberal peacebuilders and democracy promoters have used democracy to achieve both the immediate goals of peacekeeping and the broader, global mission of the United Nations. Today democracy may have gained an international dimension, yet its success as an organizational practice depends on how democracy has been defined. Drawing on political theory and democratization scholarship, The United Nations Democracy Agenda questions the meaning of this well-'known' idea. The book analyses the way in which the UN, through its Secretary-General, relevant agencies and organizational practices, have thought about, conceptualized and used democracy. The United Nations Democracy Agenda shows that while the idea of democracy's 'civilizing' nature has played a prominent part in its use by the UN, an early focus on sovereignty and self-determination delayed the emergence of the democracy agenda until the 1990s. Today, a comprehensive democracy agenda incorporates not only elections but a broad range of liberal democratic institutions. Despite this, the democracy agenda is at an impasse, both practically and philosophically. The United Nations Democracy Agenda questions whether an extension of the UN democracy agenda to include 'developmental democracy' is feasible.
This volume examines the different and sometimes contradictory approaches of four UN human rights committees to the concept of religion. Drawing on critical perspectives from religious studies, the book combines a genealogical assessment of the role of religion in international law with a detailed textual study of the reporting practice of the committees monitoring racial discrimination, civil and political rights, women's rights, and children's rights. Årsheim argues that the role of religion within the rights traditions monitored by the committees varies to the extent that their recommendations risk contradicting one another, thereby undermining their credibility and potential to bring about real change on the ground: Where some committees view religion singularly as a core individual right, others see religion partly as an inherent threat to the realization of other rights, but also as a potent social force to be reckoned with. In order to remedy this situation, Årsheim proposes the publication of a joint general comment by all the committees, spelling out their approach to the role of religion in the implementation of human rights.
"The historic United Nations conferences and summits held in the 1990s and 2000s generated an unprecedented global consensus on a shared vision of development. That broad-based framework in turn laid the groundwork for the Millennium Summit, at which a series of challenging time-bound goals and targets were adopted. They were later collated as Millennium Development Goals, which have succeeded in galvanizing an exceptional momentum to meet the needs of the world's poorest."--Preface.
This exciting new text illustrates and advances the argument that International Organizations (IOs) need to be taken seriously as actors in world affairs. Bringing together an international line-up of distinguished contributors, the text examines recent theories that suggest how IOs are able to set their own policies and implement them in meaningful ways. The chapters review these theoretical positions and then present a series of case studies which focus on how these theories play out when IOs are charged with solving global problems: including development, peacekeeping and environmental policy coordination. Examining and analysing both positive and negative examples of this independence, this text is a valuable resource on the topic of the internal workings of IOs, providing the richest and most focused textbook so far dealing with the capacity of IOs for independent action in international politics. It is essential reading for all students of international organizations.
This Handbook provides in one volume an authoritative and independent treatment of the UN's seventy-year history, written by an international cast of more than 50 distinguished scholars, analysts, and practitioners. It provides a clear and penetrating examination of the UN's development since 1945 and the challenges and opportunities now facing the organization. It assesses the implications for the UN of rapid changes in the world - from technological innovation to shifting foreign policy priorities - and the UN's future place in a changing multilateral landscape. Citations and additional readings contain a wealth of primary and secondary references to the history, politics, and law of the world organization. This key reference also contains appendices of the UN Charter, the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Using a unique analytical framework, the UN Secretariat's Influence on the Evolution of Peacekeeping reveals deep insights in the UN's peacekeeping decision-making and shows that even international bureaucracies with limited autonomy can shape international politics.
Summarizes both the panel presentations & the discussion sessions from the U.N. conference on non-governmental organizations (NGOs) & global governance held on October 30- November 1, 1995 in Geneva. Convened to bring together a representative group of NGOs that have been participating in U.N. events for the past few years, & U.N. staff with direct experience working with NGOs. The conference addressed a number of key questions on the U.N., NGO, & U.N.-NGO agendas. Includes a listing of participants, conference agenda, & listing of acronyms.
The Index is a bibliographic guide to the proceedings and documentation of the General Assembly. This issue covers the sixty-third session of the Assembly including its Main and ad hoc committees. It offers sessional information; a check-list of meetings; information on principal organs and subsidiary bodies to which members were elected or appointed; an agenda, a subject list of documents; reports of the main and procedural committees; resolutions and decisions adopted; and a voting chart of resolutions.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a universal set of seventeen goals and 169 targets, with accompanying indicators, which were agreed by UN member states to frame their policy agendas for the fifteen-year period from 2015 to 2030. Written by three authors who have been engaged in the development of the SDGs from the beginning, this book offers an insider view of the process and a unique entry into what will be seen as one of the most significant negotiations and global policy agendas of the twenty-first century. The book reviews how the SDGs were developed, what happened in key meetings and how this transformational agenda, which took more than three years to negotiate, came together in September 2015. It dissects and analyzes the meetings, organizations and individuals that played key roles in their development. It provides fascinating insights into the subtleties and challenges of high-level negotiation processes of governments and stakeholders, and into how the SDGs were debated, formulated and agreed. It is essential reading for all interested in the UN, sustainable development and the future of the planet and humankind.
The Subject Index is a valuable guide for anyone interested in the work of the General Assembly. It offers sessional information; a check-list of meetings; information on pricipal organs and subsidiary bodies to which members were elected or appointed; a subject list of documents; reports of the main and procedural committees; resolutions and decisions adopted; and a voting chart.
The 50th anniversary of the United Nations Organisation is commemorated in 1995. The UN emerged at the end of the most bloody war in the history of contemporary civilization and it is understandable that its founding fathers were concerned first and foremost with the need "to save succeeding gen erations from the scourge of war." This great historical mission of the new international organisation was determined and designed by the allied powers that had won the war against the "enemy states." Cooperation of the perma nent members of the UN Security Council was the basic element of the effi ciency of post -war system of international peace and security. Apart from this main mission, the founding fathers of the United Nations declared their determination "to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social prog ress and better standards of life in larger freedom" (preamble, UN Charter).
After seven decades of existence has the UN become obsolete? Is it ripe for retirement? As Jussi Hanhim?ki proves in the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, the answer is no. In the second decade of the twenty-first century the UN remains an indispensable organization that continues to save lives and improve the world as its founders hoped. Since its original publication in 2008, this 2nd edition includes more recent examples of the UN Security Council in action and peacekeeping efforts while exploring its most recent successes and failures. After a brief history of the United Nations and its predecessor, the League of Nations, Hanhim?ki examines the UN's successes and failures as a guardian of international peace and security, as a promoter of human rights, as a protector of international law, and as an engineer of socio-economic development. This updated edition highlights what continues to make the UN a complicated organization today, and the ongoing challenges between its ambitions and capabilities. Hanhim?ki also provides a clear account of the UN and its various arms and organizations (such as UNESCO and UNICEF), and offers a critical overview of the UN Security Council's involvement in recent crises in Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Ukraine, Libya, and Syria, and how likely it is to meet its overall goals in the future. Regardless of its obstacles, the UN is likely to survive for the foreseeable future. That alone makes trying to understand the UN in all its manifold - magnificent and frustrating - complexity a worthy task. With this much-needed updated introduction to the UN, Jussi Hanhim?ki engages the current debate over the organizations effectiveness as he provides a clear understanding of how it was originally conceived, how it has come to its present form, and how it must confront new challenges in a rapidly changing world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This essential party primer includes new chapters on polarization between and within the parties in the aftermath of the 2012 election, demographic changes to America’s political parties and the effects of new media and campaign finance laws, and the implications of all these things on future policymaking and electoral prospects moving forward.
This Index is a bibliographical guide to the proceedings and documentation of the General Assembly. This issue covers the 61st session, including its main and ad hoc committees. Part 1 is the subject index, and Part 2 (ISBN 9789211011654) is the index to speeches, arranged by corporate names/countries, speakers and subjects.
This book presents the key debates about globalisation and links them with the growing, related discussion of the possible development of global democracy. Global Democracy presents the literatures of globalisation and democracy to explore the major debates. The first part of the book brings together three major theorists and three critiques of their work - David Held on the potential advantages of globalisation for the furtherance of democracy; Paul Hirst questioning the idea of globalisation and Danilo Zolo on the need for some kind of international governance. The second part of the book looks at structures and processes, such as the UN, global civil society, state sovereignty, the EU and democratisation from major thinkers such as Boutros Boutros-Ghali. This book provides exposition and critical examination of the latest thinking of leading authorities in the newly important fields of globalisation and global democracy. It will be a valuable textbook and resource for students of International Relations, Politics, Political Theory, and those taking courses in democratisation and globalisation.
This book investigates whether international standards of good governance are applied to sub-state actors as well as to states. By examining the international response to self-determination claims, this project demonstrates that the international community does indeed hold sub-state groups accountable to such standards.
The Index is an annual bibliographic guide to the proceedings and documentation of the Council and includes indices to the activities of each session, as well as information on organizational matters such as membership. A further part of the Index is devoted to resolutions, documents and reports. Publishing Agency: United Nations (UN).
The end of communist rule in China will be one of the most momentous events of the twenty-first century, sounding the death knell for the Marxist-Leninist experiment and changing the lives of a fifth of humanity. This book provides a likely blow-by-blow account of how the Chinese Communist Party will be removed from power and how a new democracy will be born. In more than half a century of rule, the Chinese Communist Party has turned a poor and benighted China into a moderately well-off and increasingly influential nation. Yet the Party has failed to keep pace with change since stepping aside from daily life in the late-1970s. After nearly a hundred years of frustrating attempts to create a workable political system following the overthrow of the last dynasty, the prospects for democracy in China are better than ever, according to Bruce Gilley. Gilley predicts an elite-led transformation rather than a popular-led overthrow. He profiles the key actors and looks at the response of excluded elites, such as the military, as well as interested parties such as Taiwan and Tibet. He explains how democracy in China will be very "Chinese," even as it will also embody fundamental universal liberal features. He deals with competing interests—regional, sectoral, and class—of China's economy and society under democracy, addressing the pressing concerns of world business. Finally he considers the implications for Asia as well as for the United States. The end of communist rule in China will be one of the most momentous events of the twenty-first century, sounding the death knell for the Marxist-Leninist experiment and changing the lives of a fifth of humanity. This book provides a likely blow-by-blow account of how the Chinese Communist Party will be removed from power and how a new democracy will be born. In more than half a century of rule, the Chinese Communist Party has turned a poor and benighted China into a moderately well-off and increasingly influential nation. Yet the Party has failed to keep pace with change since stepping aside from daily life in the late-1970s. After nearly a hundred years of frustrating attempts to create a workable political system following the overthrow of the last dynasty, the prospects for democracy in China are better than ever, according to Bruce Gilley. Gilley predicts an elite-led transformation rather than a popular-led overthrow. He profiles the key actors and looks at the response of excluded elites, such as the military, as well as interested parties such as Taiwan and Tibet. He explains how democracy in China will be very "Chinese," even as it will also embody fundamental universal liberal features. He deals with competing interests—regional, sectoral, and class—of China's economy and society under democracy, addressing the pressing concerns of world business. Finally he considers the implications for Asia as well as for the United States.
In recent years, a new movement has emerged within organizational psychology, transposing the established principles of the field onto arenas of more pressing humanitarian need, including the humanitarian treatment of all workers in all work settings. Humanitarian Work Psychology (HWP) stretches the parameters of the discipline to focus on regions, communities, and groups of workers that can potentially benefit most from its research and insights. Humanitarian Work Psychology and the Global Development Agenda is the first book to provide a collection of case studies of HWP in action. Edited by some of the leading scholars in the field, it benchmarks HWP against the developmental goals set out by the United Nations at the start of the century as the most pressing issues of our age, ranging from the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger and the achievement of universal primary education, to gender equality and empowerment, the reduction of child mortality, greater environmental sustainability and global partnership-building. Including findings from interventions conducted in Nigeria, India, Ghana, Hong Kong and Sierra Leone, the book examines how the latest research from organizational psychology can be used to support people working in developing economies, as well as in humanitarian work itself. The collection concludes with a section on how this exciting new field will develop in the future, particularly in reference to the forthcoming United Nations goals for global sustainable development. Humanitarian Work Psychology and the Global Development Agenda will be a fascinating read not only for all students and researchers of Organizational Psychology, but also those working and studying in the related fields of Development Studies, Environmental Sustainability, International Politics and International Economics.
The United Nations Documents Index provides information on documents and publications issued by United Nations offices worldwide. The information is presented in nine sections covering the areas of documents and publications; official records; sales publications; United Nations maps included in UN documents; United Nations sheet maps; United Nations document series symbols; author index; title index and subject index. The index is a two part set.
The United Nations Documents index provides information on documents and publications issued by United Nations offices worldwide. The information is presented in nine sections covering the areas of documents and publications; official records; sales publications; United Nations maps included in UN documents; United Nations sheet maps; United Nations document series symbols; author index; title index and subject index. The index is a three part set. Publishing Agency: United Nations (UN).
Americans have been trying to shape democracy around the world for more than a century. It is the American mission, our distinctive form of evangelism. But when President Bush declared, in his second inaugural address, that "the survival of liberty in our land increasingly depends on the success of liberty in other lands," he elevated this cause—the "Freedom Agenda," as he called it—to the central theme of American foreign policy. Yet the war in Iraq has proven the folly of seeking to impose American democracy by force. As we leave the Bush era behind, the question arises: What part of our efforts to spread democracy can we rescue from this failure? The Freedom Agenda traces the history of America's democratic evangelizing. James Traub, a journalist for The New York Times Magazine, describes the rise and fall of the Freedom Agenda during the Bush years, in part through interviews with key administration officials. He offers a richly detailed portrait of the administration's largely failed efforts to bolster democratic forces abroad. In the end, Traub argues that democracy matters—for human rights, for reconciliation among ethnic and religious groups, for political stability and equitable development—but the United States must exercise caution in its efforts to spread it, matching its deeds to its words, both abroad and at home.
In the mid-1990s, when the United Nations adopted positions affirming a woman's right to be free from bodily harm and to control her own reproductive health, it was both a coup for the international women's rights movement and an instructive moment for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) seeking to influence UN decision making. Prior to the UN General Assembly's 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence against Women and the 1994 decision by the UN's Conference on Population and Development to vault women's reproductive rights and health to the forefront of its global population growth management program, there was little consensus among governments as to what constituted violence against women and how much control a woman should have over reproduction. Jutta Joachim tells the story of how, in the years leading up to these decisions, women's organizations got savvy—framing the issues strategically, seizing political opportunities in the international environment, and taking advantage of mobilizing structures—and overcame the cultural opposition of many UN-member states to broadly define the two issues and ultimately cement women's rights as an international cause. Joachim's deft examination of the documents, proceedings, and actions of the UN and women's advocacy NGOs—supplemented by interviews with key players from concerned parties, and her own participant-observation—reveals flaws in state-centered international relations theories as applied to UN policy, details the tactics and methods that NGOs can employ in order to push rights issues onto the UN agenda, and offers insights into the factors that affect NGO influence. In so doing, Agenda Setting, the UN, and NGOs departs from conventional international relations theory by drawing on social movement literature to illustrate how rights groups can motivate change at the international level.
Reviewing how we the people became sovereigns, this book encourages citizens to become peaceful activists to supplement representative government. The author declares seventy-five grievances against the United States government. He proposes or endorses remedies in the forms of constitutional amendments or ordinary statutory law, some of them of popular initiative and referendum. Much of this entails transfer of powers from the national government back to the people or to local, state, or transnational governments. The proposals include reforms at the United Nations and measures to end world poverty, spread health care and education, and manage resources for a sustainable environment.
Written in a clear and easy-to-follow style, this revealing text examines the contemporary political geography of the West Bank and Gaza strip. Descriptive in nature, it documents the changes and developments since 1967 right up to the disengagement from Gaza. The book is supplemented by numerous maps and covers issues including demography, Jewish settlements, water and natural resources, transport infrastructure, planning, partition plans for Jerusalem, settlement policy and the Separation Fence. One of the first books to tackle this contentious subject from a geographical rather than a political or historical perspective, The West Bank and Gaza Strip will be of huge interest to both undergraduate and graduate students studying the Israel-Palestine question.
In a large number of countries where most of the population barely manages to earn subsistence wages, the success or failure of the economic agenda largely determines the fate of the political agenda, the quality of the democratic system and the potential for social advances. The conventional set of policy prescriptions does not ensure a positive mutual feedback between these two dimensions, the economic and the political. Such positive feedback depends vitally on productivity performance. This issue is at the core of the discussions reported in this book, which explores its variegated aspects with a view to proposing ways and means of approaching it. Publishing Agency: United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
Global trends of population growth, rising living standards and the rapidly increasing urbanized world are increasing the demand on water, food and energy. Added to this is the growing threat of climate change which will have huge impacts on water and food availability. It is increasingly clear that there is no place in an interlinked world for isolated solutions aimed at just one sector. In recent years the "nexus" has emerged as a powerful concept to capture these inter-linkages of resources and is now a key feature of policy-making. This book is one of the first to provide a broad overview of both the science behind the nexus and the implications for policies and sustainable development. It brings together contributions by leading intergovernmental and governmental officials, industry, scientists and other stakeholder thinkers who are working to develop the approaches to the Nexus of water-food-energy and climate. It represents a major synthesis and state-of-the-art assessment of the Nexus by major players, in light of the adoption by the United Nations of the new Sustainable Development Goals and Targets in 2015. With a foreword by HRH the Prince of Wales
This Index is a bibliographical guide to the proceedings and documentation of the general Assembly. This issue covers the 60th session, including its main and ad hoc committees. Part 1 is the subject index, and Part 2 (ISBN 9789211011449) is the index to speeches, arranged by corporate names/countries, speakers and subjects.
The Index is an annual bibliographic guide to the proceedings and documentation of the Council and includes indices to the activities of each session, as well as information on organizational matters such as membership. A further part of the Index is devoted to resolutions, documents, and reports.
The Yearbook is the primary reference work on the United Nations, and details the many activities of the organisation and its programmes and bodies in 2001 It provides an overview of the major challenges the Organization has addressed in a variety of areas, including terrorism; peacekeeping and peacemaking; disarmament; human rights; refugees and displaced persons; international crime and corruption; natural resources and energy; and meeting the special needs of Africa. It is fully indexed and reproduces all major General Assembly, Security Council and Economic and Social Council resolutions issued during the year.
Climate change is acknowledged to be the major problem currently facing the human race, and the need to reduce our carbon footprint becomes ever more urgent as the scientific predictions of the effects of climate change become increasingly dire. Whether we are fully aware of the social and political consequences of striving for a significant reduction is more questionable. The Carbon Footprint Wars identifies the many dangers inherent in the projected solutions - such as retreating from the spread of globalization, the current socio-economic paradigm for world trade. The war of words that is being waged over the appropriate way to deal with our collective carbon footprint has critical implications for us all. Stuart Sim examines the issues in detail, raising questions about the assumptions being made on both sides of the climate change divide. He argues that we must urgently address the problem of how to engineer the best possible trade-off between economic survival and ecological disaster - and he puts forward some radical suggestions about how we should set about doing so.
Re-examines the long and complex history of democracy and broadens the traditional view of this history by complementing it with examples from unexplored or under-examined quarters.
Privatization is occurring throughout the public justice system, including courts, tribunals, and state-sanctioned private dispute resolution regimes. Driven by a widespread ethos of efficiency-based civil justice reform, privatization claims to decrease costs, increase speed, and improve access to the tools of justice. But it may also lead to procedural unfairness, power imbalances, and the breakdown of our systems of democratic governance. Civil Justice, Privatization, and Democracy demonstrates the urgent need to publicize, politicize, debate, and ultimately temper these moves towards privatized justice. Written by Trevor C.W. Farrow, a former litigation lawyer and current Chair of the Canadian Forum on Civil Justice, Civil Justice, Privatization, and Democracy does more than just bear witness to the privatization initiatives that define how we think about and resolve almost all non-criminal disputes. It articulates the costs and benefits of these privatizing initiatives, particularly their potential negative impacts on the way we regulate ourselves in modern democracies, and it makes recommendations for future civil justice practice and reform.
The United Nations in International History argues for a new way of examining the history of this central global institution by integrating more traditional diplomacy between states with new trends in transnational and cultural history to explore the organization and its role in 20th- and 21st-century history. Amy Sayward looks at the origins of the U.N. before examining a range of organizations and players in the United Nations system and analysing its international work in the key arenas of diplomacy, social & economic development programs, peace-keeping, and human rights. This volume provides a concise introduction to the broad array of international work done by the United Nations, synthesizes the existing interdisciplinary literature, and highlights areas in need of further research, making it ideal for students and beginning researchers.
The centre-left is experimenting with democracy - this book examines what it hopes to gain from what Tony Blair called 'strengthening the democratic impulse'. This book offers a clear, in-depth and comparative analysis of a range of cases of 'innovative' forms of consultation and engagement. This is one of very few books to critically examine both the policy and political uses of the shift towards citizen-centred policy making. The book also offers a fresh analysis on the Big Society agenda and its potential for adoption outside of the UK. This book will be of interest to politicians, policy makers and interest groups seeking to understand the dynamics and contradictions in the search for democratic renewal. Students, academics and policy makers with an interest in democratic renewal, consultation, centre-left and centre-right politics will find this a valuable resource. The book adopts the 'democratic audit' approach developed by Professor David Beetham and colleagues. Using the ideas of political equality, popular control and deliberation the book examines a range of cases of 'innovative consultation. It links these cases with a mapping of recent changes in political behavior and the political responses by both left and right to what some call a 'crisis of democracy'. Students, academics, policy makers with an interest in consultation, democratic renewal, labour politics and the Big Society agenda are the key target audience for the book.
A sobering account of a disenfranchised American working class and important policy solutions to the nation’s economic inequalities One of the country’s leading scholars on economics and social policy, Isabel Sawhill addresses the enormous divisions in American society—economic, cultural, and political—and what might be done to bridge them. Widening inequality and the loss of jobs to trade and technology has left a significant portion of the American workforce disenfranchised and skeptical of governments and corporations alike. And yet both have a role to play in improving the country for all. Sawhill argues for a policy agenda based on mainstream values, such as family, education, and work. While many have lost faith in government programs designed to help them, there are still trusted institutions on both the local and federal level that can deliver better job opportunities and higher wages to those who have been left behind. At the same time, the private sector needs to reexamine how it trains and rewards employees. This book provides a clear-headed and middle-way path to a better-functioning society in which personal responsibility is honored and inclusive capitalism and more broadly shared growth are once more the norm.
"[The Groundwork Guides] are excellent books, mandatory for school libraries and the increasing body of young people prepared to take ownership of the situations and problems previous generations have left them." -- Globe and Mail In this eye-opening work, political scientist and award-winning author James Laxer warns readers that our common assumptions about democracy -- that it is a natural progression of advanced societies and that it is on the rise worldwide -- are misguided. Democracy, in fact, is very fragile. Showcasing examples from all over the world, this book explains the rise of democracy in the twentieth century and examines the current status of democracy in advanced countries and in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Laxer warns that globalization and the widening gap between the rich and poor threaten to weaken democracy and the vigor of democratic regimes -- even in countries where it has been long established.
An insider’s account of the UN Security Council in the years immediately after the end of the Cold War.
This Index is a bibliographical guide to the proceedings and documentation of the general Assembly. This issue covers the 59th session, including its main and ad hoc committees. Part 1 (ISBN 921101123X) is the subject index, and Part 2 is the index to speeches, arranged by corporate names/countries, speakers and subjects.